The techniques of analyzing data are discussion, display data and drawing conclusion or verification. The result of the study is that Cockney accent is being accused as a working class accent is: 1) Amounts of uneducated people who work in a trade or buildings that speak with a Cockney accent. 2) Cockney is characterized by its own development of “Cockney rhyming slang”. 3) Cockney people do not pronounce the letter “T” which is massively different from Received Pronunciation accent (upper class accent).
Key Words: Cockney accent, the working class, uneducated people, different, Received Pronunciation, the upper class. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the study The United Kingdom is considered to be the most dialect-obsessed nation in the world. With countless accents that exist in the United Kingdom are historically shaped by thousands of years of history. Even in such a small space or region of the United Kingdom, there are varieties of accents that the people actually hold. One of them is named “Cockney’. The term “Cockney’ refers to both the accent and the people that speak it.
One explanation is that “Cockney” literally means cock’s egg, a misshapen egg such as sometimes laid by young hens. The etymology of Cockney has long been discussed and spited. Cockney, geographically and culturally, refers to the working classes in London, particularly people from the East End or from South East London (Wisped). Linguistically, it is the name given to the type of English spoken by those people. In the United Kingdom, in fact, accents still play a massive role in British class distinctions.
Such as Received Pronunciation (RPR) accent, people who speak with a Received Pronunciation (RPR) accent are commonly perceived to be more authoritative, wealthy and intelligent rather than local accents which are considered not as nice or trustworthy as people who speak tit a Received Pronunciation accent (upper class dialect). The Cockney accent has been used for decades to assign stigma to a working class person from the East End of London. Why is Cockney accent which is generally accused of a working or lower class accent of Londoner important to analyze?
When it comes to accents, we are talking about culture which we should highly appreciate and preserve instead of classifying distinctive people into different kinds of social strata. This sort of thing leads to a discrimination as well as prejudice. People who speak with a Cockney accent are unexpectedly considered to be less-educated people. People who speak with a Received Pronunciation or Standard British accent, as the surveys reveal; have never spoken with a Cockney accent. This is genuinely Linguistics discrimination and also called Linguistic and Languages.
It is the unfair treatment of an individual based solely on their use of language. This use of language may also include the individual’s native language or other characteristics of the person’s speech, such as dialects and accents. Based on difference in use of language, a person may automatically form judgments about another person’s wealth, education, social status, characters, and other raids. These perceived judgments may then lead to the unjustifiable treatment of the individual (Wisped). This is actually what happens to Cockney accent and the people.
It is so unfair by classifying people only by their accents which eventually leads to awful accent discrimination. Anyway, due to the fact that London is both the political capital and the largest city within England, Wells, (Bibb) doesn’t find it surprising that it’s also the country’s “linguistic center of gravity. ” Cockney represents the basically end Of the London accent and can be considered the broadest form of London coal accent. (Wells Bibb) It traditionally refers only to specific regions and speakers within the city.
While many Londoner may speak what is referred to as “popular London” (Wells 1 Bibb) they do not necessarily speak Cockney. The popular Londoner accent can be distinguished from Cockney in a number of ways, and can also be found outside of the capital, unlike the true Cockney accent. Area, with the clearing of the original City of London as a chiefly residential area and the growth of docks and industry to the east, the traditional core district became firmly established in the East End.
This covers Between Green, Whitecap, Springfield, Stephen, Yapping Almshouse, Poplar, Crewelwork, Altered, Shortsighted, Minimal, Huston, Bow and Mile End. However, in recent years the dialect has moved out of inner-city of London towards the outskirts of Greater London. Today Cockney-speaking areas include parts of Datagram, Barking, Ballerinas, Firewood, Flowstone, Rumford, Chilled, Laughter, Harrow, Atonement, Enfield Lock, Brimstone, Basilica, Truck, Chunter, Begley, Suicide, Walling, Lethal and Collision and others.
Here, for a basic example, the writer is going to be attempting to analyze some videos of Sam Pepper that she found on Youth. Sam Pepper or Samuel Nicholas pepper is literally a video flogger from Flowstone, Kent who has a strong Cockney accent. The first video which the writer is attempting to analyze is called Mining Parents Do”. The way he speaks and conveys every single word and the articulation are quite different from other British people. As there is always its own characteristics of each accent that every single county in the United Kingdom holds.
According to dialectical. Com/British-accents the characteristic of Cockney accent is that it s non-orthodontic, meaning that the r at the ends of words is not pronounced at all. In Sam Pepper’s video when he mentions “whatever” he pronounces it as ‘Evade” without the letter r pronounced, and when he mentions the word “stare” he pronounces it as “set” and “off’ as “ah”. Another characteristic of Cockney accent is Trap-bath split, meaning that certain a words, like bath, can’t, and dance, today are pronounced with the broad-a like in father. This differs from most American accents, in which these words are pronounced with the short-a in cat). Also, London vowel shift: in the video of Sam Pepper he vowel sounds are shifted around so that Cockney “day’ sounds is pronounced dl (close to American “die”) and Cockney buy verges near boll (close to American “boy’). Glottal Stopping: the letter t is pronounced with the back of the throat (glottis) in between vowels; hence better becomes be? A (sounds to outsiders like “Beebe”), “button” becomes “baa? N” and water becomes “WA? Uh” and computer sounds like “comply? Ah. The-Fronting: The the in words like think or this is pronounced with a more forward consonant depending on the word, in Sam pepper’s video he mentions ‘things” as “FinnThis is the International Phonetics of Received Pronunciation Alphabet of the sentence ha luau gag I jug do)an mi: a ; gene FAA WI XSL
This is the International Phonetics of Received Pronunciation Alphabet of the sentence jar In a Payback ‘ peelers and jug morals level jug Ana hot Eva J adz not Ana ;watt du:Len and J aka:NT ;stimuli tell jug of . But in Cockney it would be “l jag In a pinball Pl*RSI and jug hen. ‘ jug Ana vivo? Eva J adz no? Ana woo? jag ; du:10 and lie aka:NT stimuli tell jug of(the sound of “T” letter disappears and is changed into glottal stopping which is actually the It’s sound is not pronounced at all, the symbol of glottal stop is ‘? ) I . Those are the theatres of Cockney accent that differentiate from other accents in the United Kingdom. From the characteristic and the history how the accent was actually there is the reason why people around London or even outside London consider it as a working class accent held by working class people who live in London or we call them Londoner. B. Previous Study There is no previous study related to Cockney accent as being accused as a working class accent in London C.
Underlying Theories There are genuinely a lot of theories related to accents but what are compatible with this context about British accents particularly Cockney accent impairing to Received Pronunciation accent are these; In historicalness. Com/history_early_modern. HTML History of how English language dialects; 1 . The Anglo-Saxon Settlement It’s never easy to pinpoint exactly when a specific language began, but in the case of English we can at least say that there is little sense in speaking of the English language as a separate entity before the Anglo-Saxons came to Britain.
Little is known of this period with any certainty, but we do know that Germanic invaders came in Britain from the north-western coastline of continental Europe in the fifth and sixth centuries. The invaders all spoke a language that was Germanic (related to what emerged as Dutch, Frisian, German and the Scandinavian languages, and to Gothic), but we’ll probably never know how different their speech was from that of their continental neighbors. However it is certain that many of the settlers would have spoken in exactly the same way as some of their north European neighbors, and that not all of the settlers would have spoken in the same way.
The reason that we know so little about the linguistic situation in this period is because we do not have much in the way of written records from any of the Germanic languages f north-western Europe until several centuries later. When Old English writings begin to appear in the seventh, eighth, and ninth centuries there is a good deal of regional variation, but not substantially more than that found in later periods. This was the language that Alfred the Great referred to as ‘English’ in the ninth century.
The Cells were already resident in Britain when the Anglo-Saxons arrived, but there are few obvious traces of their language in English today. Some scholars have suggested that the Celtic tongue might have had an underlying influence on the grammatical development of English, articulacy in some parts of the country, but this is highly speculative. The number Of loanwords known for certain to have entered Old English from this source is very small. Those that survive in modern English include Brock (badger), and comb a type of valley, alongside many place names. . The Scandinavian Settlements The next invaders were the Norse. From the middle of the ninth century large numbers of Norse invaders settled in Britain, particularly in northern and eastern areas, and in the eleventh century the whole of England had a Danish king, Cannot. The distinct North Germanic speech of the Norse ad great influence on English. However, much of the influence of Norse, including the vast majority of the loanwords, does not appear in written English until after the next great historical and cultural upheaval, the Norman Conquest. 3. 066 and after The centuries after the Norman Conquest witnessed enormous changes in the English language. In the course of what is called the Middle English period, the fairly rich inflectional system of Old English broke down. It was replaced by what is broadly speaking, the same system English has today, which unlike Old English makes very little use of distinctive word endings in he grammar of the language. The vocabulary of English also changed enormously, with tremendous numbers of borrowings from French and Latin, in addition to the Scandinavian loanwords already mentioned, which Were slowly starting to appear in the written language.
Old English, like German today, showed a tendency to find native equivalents for foreign words and phrases, whereas Middle English acquired the habit that modern English retains today of readily accommodating foreign words. Trilingual in English, French, and Latin was common in the worlds of business and the revisions, with words crossing over from one language to another with ease. 4. Standardization The late medieval and early modern periods saw a fairly steady process of standardization in English south of the Scottish border.
The written and spoken language of London continued to evolve and gradually began to have a greater influence in the country at large. For most of the Middle English period a dialect was simply what was spoken in a particular area, which would normally be more or less represented in writing ; although where and from whom the writer had learnt how to write were also important. It was only when the broadly London standard began to dominate, especially through the new technology of printing, that the other regional varieties of the language began to be seen as different in kind.
As the London standard became used more widely, especially in more formal contexts and particularly amongst the more elevated members of society, the other regional varieties came to be stigmatize, as lacking social prestige and indicating a lack of education. In the same period a series of changes also occurred in English pronunciation (though not uniformly in all dialects), which go under the elective name of the Great Vowel Shift. These were purely linguistic ‘sound changes’ which OCCUr in every language in every period Of history.
The changes in pronunciation weren’t the result of specific social or historical factors, but social and historical factors would have helped to spread the results of the changes. As a result the so-called ‘pure’ vowel sounds which still characterize many continental languages were lost to English. The phonetic pairings of most long and short vowel sounds were also lost, which gave rise to many of the oddities of English pronunciation, and which now obscure the legislations between many English words and their foreign counterparts. 5.
Colonization and Globalization During the medieval and early modern periods the influence of English spread throughout the British Isles, and from the early seventeenth century onwards its influence began to be felt throughout the world. The complex processes of exploration, colonization and overseas trade that characterized Britain’s external relations for several centuries led to significant change in English. Words were absorbed from all over the world, often via the languages of other trading and imperial nations such as Spain, Portugal and he Netherlands.
At the same time, new varieties of English emerged, each with their own nuances of vocabulary and grammar and their own distinct pronunciations. More recently still, English has become a lingua franca, a global language, regularly used and understood by many nations for whom English is not their first language. The eventual effects on the English language of both of these developments can only be guessed at today, but there can be little doubt that they will be as important as anything that has happened to English in the past sixteen hundred years.
According to Ferguson (1 994: 65) offers another definition of variety as the following: The variation is anybody of human speech patterns which is sufficiently homogeneous to be analyzed by available technique of synchronicity description and which has a sufficiently large repertory of element semantic to function in all normal context of communication. So variation of language is a specific set of linguistic item or human speech pattern (presumably, sounds, words, grammatical features, etc). Illustrations, S Millennia; 201 1) 1. Dialect (Wisped) The term dialect (from the ancient Greek word AL;Extent did;losses, discourse”, from AL; did, “through” and XWY leg¶, ‘IL speak”) is used in two distinct ways. One usage the more common among linguists-?refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language’s speakers. The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class.
A dialect that is associated with a particular social class can be termed a collects, a dialect that is associated with a particular ethnic group can be termed as ethnology, and a regional dialect may be termed a recollect or peoples. According to this definition, any variety of a language constitutes “a dialect”, including any standard varieties. The other usage refers to a language that is socially subordinated to a regional or national standard language, often historically cognate to the standard, but not derived from it.
In this sense, the standard language is not itself considered a dialect. A framework was developed in 1 967 by Heinz Solos, Scubas-, Abstain- and Dacha-speech, to describe speech communities, that while unified politically and/or culturally, include multiple dialects which though closely related unethically may be divergent to the point of inter-dialect unintelligibility. A dialect is distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation (phonology, including prosody).
Where a distinction can be made only in terms of pronunciation (including prosody, or just prosody itself), the term accent is appropriate, not dialect. Other speech varieties include: standard languages, which are standardized for public performance (for example, a written standard); jargon, which are characterized by differences in lexicon (vocabulary); slang patois; pidgins or argots. The particular speech patterns seed by an individual are termed an idiolect.
Regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, especially a variety of speech differing from the standard literary language or speech pattern of the culture in which it exists: Cockney is a dialect of English. Or a variety of language that with other varieties constitutes a single language Of which no single variety is standard: the dialects of Ancient Greek. Whilst according to dictionary. Reference. Mom, dialect in linguistics is a variety of a language that is distinguished from other varieties of the same language by theatres of phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, and by its use by a group of speakers who are set from others geographically or socially and/or a provincial, rural, or socially distinct variety of a language that differs from the standard language, especially when considered as substandard. Chambers and Trudging (1998) provide an example of such a case: “If two speakers say, respectively, I done it last night and I did it last night; we can say that they are speaking different dialects” (Chambers & Trudging: 1998, p. ). 2. Accent According to Wisped In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner Of renunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation. An accent may identify the locality in which its speakers reside (a regional or geographical accent), the socio-economic status of its speakers, their ethnicity, their caste or social class (a social accent), or influence from their first language (a foreign accent). Accents typically differ in quality of the voice, pronunciation and distinction of vowels and consonants, stress, and prosody.
Although grammar, semantics, vocabulary, and other language characteristics often vary concurrently with accent, the word ‘accent’ may refer specifically to he differences in pronunciation, whereas the word “dialect” encompasses the broader set of linguistic differences. Often “accent” is a subset of “dialect”. 3. Varieties of English If we were to gather a group Of individuals together from across the ELK, or indeed the world, one of the most noticeable features of any conversation they had would be their different speech styles.
Varieties of English looks at the different accents and dialects communities of people use, how these linguistic varieties differ in several aspects including vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation and also other speakers’ attitudes towards this variation. This diversity is what makes the topic so interesting to learn about, but is also the biggest factor in why certain accents have become stigmatize or ‘looked down on. ‘ Because everyone has access to them, everyone is keen to comment on ‘what they like the sound of,’ ‘what sounds odd,’ ‘what makes the speaker sound uneducated. This is to demonstrate the several aspects involved in studying the Varieties of English as well as identifying case studies and examples of accents and dialects and look at the social and cultural factors surrounding different speech communities. According to Karakul De Kathy (Linguistics 201 ; 2001 ) speech communities is a group of people speaking a common dialect. The group may be defined in terms of existentialistic factors, such as age, region, socioeconomic status, group identification. That is why people from the Empire do not speak with a Cockney accent because of different speech communities. . According to professor David Lee, (2011); besides the theory there is a theory that saying “we can all fake a British accent. Most of us would think. ” Professor David Lee, a voice and speech specialist from the University of Alberta shows us how to peak in a standard upper middle class English dialect in a youth video. Professor Lee, on the video called “How to use a proper British accent with Professor David Lee” discusses the nuances of the dialect. There is a massive difference between how the upper class and the working class speak.
What he says on the video is that, “The first thing we need to do to find that dialect is to sit up and forward in our chairs. The sound is going to come to the front of our mouth. Our tongue is going to move forward. It is going to be much easier for us to speak clearly and crisply as is required of this dialect. If we sit back in the chair we can hear what happens to the tongue… Goes back in the mouth and that is a great place to go if we want to do a working class dialect. ” That is just a tutorial how to do a working class dialect or generally we call it “Cockney accent” in English particularly the area around London, England.
There is a massive difference from one accent to the other accents in England. Either it has an influence on people’s strata or whereabouts in part of the I-J one is actually from. D. Research Method Research method is an important as well as crucial thing in this research paper. The purpose of this research is to present the reason why Cockney accent is accused as a working class accent Of Londoner, and the reason behind British accents are the main point of judging people’s social strata through accents. As we know that dialects or even accents are cultural thing.
Culture is something that we should genuinely highly appreciate instead of becoming things such as social strata discrimination. Cockney is a dialect usually connected with Loon’s working-class, originally associated with those who were “born within the sound of Bow Bells” (Wells, 1 982), In this heaper, the writer takes a specific procedure covering six points, namely the type of research, subject of the research, object of the research, data and source of data, method of collecting data and technique for analyzing data.
A. Type of the Research In this study, the writer uses descriptive qualitative research. Qualitative research according to Wisped is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further context. Qualitative researchers aim to gather in- depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when.
Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often used than large samples. In the conventional view, qualitative methods produce information Only On the particular cases studied, and anymore general conclusions are only propositions (informed assertions). B. Subject of the Research The subject of the research is the people in the United Kingdom who practically hold Cockney accent in their daily speaking. Most people that hold Cockney accent mainly are from London, but undoubtedly some of them may just move out of town somewhere.
Therefore, now Cockney people have literally spread all around the Ignited Kingdom. C. Object of the Research The object of the research focuses on Youth videos Of Sam Pepper channel and some other related Cockney accent videos. D. Data and Source of Data Data and source of data have many important roles in research, in this research the data are information about why Cockney accent is accused of a working class accent in London. The writer takes the data from some sources on the internet and several books related to British accents. . The data of this research are videos on Youth. Mom that the writer takes field notes from the observation the way the people on the videos talk and finding the differences of Cockney accent from others. 2. The data of this research are also taken from some forum on Google. Com blobs discussing British accents particularly Cockney accent as being accused of a working class accent of Londoner. The writer takes their opinions as the data. 3.
The data of this research are also taken from several books of British accents that have helped the writer convince the thought of Cockney accent is considered as a working class accent of Londoner. 4. The data of this research are also taken from friends on backbone. Com who live in England, the United Kingdom. E. Method of Collecting Data 1. Interview The writer interviews some of people from England through the internet such as backbone. Com as a main resource of interviewing, as well as Keep.
One of them is called “Steven Gibbs” from Salisbury, Wiltshire, England who has a strong Received pronunciation accent. The writer asks his opinion of why Cockney accent is considered as a lower class accent in England particularly London. Another one is called “Nathaniel Hess” from Leeds, England. The writer interviews them obviously related to Cockney accent as well as Received pronunciation accent as a comparing. 2. Observation The writer of this research paper does an observation of why Cockney accent is being accused as a working class accent of Londoner.
The observation is merely taken from the sources of the internet. Source that has a massive role in establishing this research data is Youth. Com. The writer takes videos related to Cockney accent from Youth. Com and the comments from all over the world to the observed videos. This is another simpler way of supporting his research data without directly going to England to interview the people there. 3. Analyzing document As what the writer is writing is related to dialect, which is regional dialect from the United Kingdom.
Therefore, in supporting the data collection the writer transcribes some of the sentences in the videos into phonetic transcription. PIP (International Phonetic Alphabets) is how the writer analyzes and transcribes the documents into supporting data. F. Technique for Analyzing Data According to Stoop (1 996: 88), there are three steps used in this model, namely data discussion, conclusion and verification. 1. It is the process of asking summary from the main point, arranging it and categorizing based on its classification.
The writer of this research categorizes data taken from the interviews as well as observation. 2. Data Display In this section, the writer describes and discusses the findings of the research in the form of systematic classification. Therefore, it will be much easier to be understood and analyzed. 3. Conclusion and Verification The writer draws a conclusion to get to know the basic reasons of Cockney accent is being accused as a working class accent of Londoner. This is the last step of the research and suggestion based on data analysis.