The Theatre Experience 12th Edition

What is Theatre?
one performer and one person to watch

Observed Theatre
the audience participates vicariously or empathetically with what is happening onstage

Participatory Theatre
audience or attendees participate by singing and dancing

Big Perspective
Aesthetic Distance

Aesthetic Distance
to perceive and appreciate a work of art we need distance.

First Theatre presentation
In Egypt

Drama Therapy
have emotional baggage like daddy issues…etc….

A Crucial Element of the Theatre experience
Becoming part of a group

Audience participation
Becoming part of a group is a crucial element of the theatre experience. For a time we share a common undertaking, focused one activity—we sense an intangible communion with those around us. AFFIRMATION OF A GROUP

Flashbacks
abrupt movements from the present to the past and back again, are a familiar technique in films such as “Babel, The Departed”….etc…

Protagonist
principal character in a play the one whom the drama is about

Antagonist
opponent of the protagonist in a drama

Climatic Structure
basic dramatic forms reappearing; plot begins late in the story; scenes, locales, & characteristics are limited; construction is TIGHT

Episodic Structure
People places and events proliferate; there may be a PARALLEL PLOT or SUB-PLOT; Juxtaposition & contrast occur

Realistic
calls for settings that look “Very Much” like their counterparts in real life

Non-Realistic
the designer can give free rein to imagination

Realism
one that resembles observable reality; representing a real human

Non-Realism
everything that “DOES NOT” conform to our observations of surface reality;;unreal figures; events that don’t take place in real life

Story
narrative accounts of what people do (a full account of an event; told in CHRONOLOGICAL order)

Plot
is the arrangement or structure of events or the selection and order of scenes in a play

Climax
builds from one crisis to another; the final and MOST SIGNIFICANT crisis

Crisis
as a result of conflicts, obstacles, and complications in a play; the characters becomes involved in a series of crisis

Objective
a single, temporary desire or goal that arises in a character within a scene. (Also called “Intention”.)

Obstacles
that which DELAYS or PREVENTS the achieving of a GOAL by a character; obstacle creates: complication & conflict

Complications
outside forces or new twist in the plot introduced at an opportune moment. (ACTION PROLONGED an TENSION INCREASED)

Tactics
crying, An action or strategy carefully planned to achieve a specific end

Off-Book
director tells cast (by certain date) they must memorize their lines and can no longer use their scripts in rehearsal

Doubling
when a PERFORMER plays more than one role in a play

Performative Activities
theatrical events in everyday life – weddings, funerals, graduations, inaugurations

Performative Arts
ceremonies and presentations as the Abydos and Mayan ritual dramas; generally include many theatrical components, including costumes, performance roles, and dance, which help to tell a story

Props
comes from the word “property” ; an object that’s not permanent

Blocking
(Deciding when and where performers move and position themselves on the stage)

Projection
THROWING the VOICE into the audience so that it penetrates to the uttermost reaches of the theatre.

Cues
Any prearranged signal-such as the last words in a speech, a piece of business or any action or lighting change-that indicates to a performer or stage manager that it is time to proceed to the next line or action. (like a doorbell) (lighting changes)

Soliloquy
A dramatic speech, revealing inner thoughts and feelings, spoken aloud by one character while alone on the stage.

Focusing Lights
They are aimed at a specfic area of the stage

Building Costumes
created in a costume shop under the direction of the shop supervisor, who works closely with a costume designer in much the same way (the technical director and scene designer work together)

Pulling Costumes
when costumes are rented and the designer goes to a costume house or storeroom and selects outfits that are appropriate for the production.

Elements a costume designer works with
1) line, shape, and silhouette 2) color 3) fabric 4) accessories

Stage directions
tell actors how to move and speak; are in parentheses ( ) or in italics. They can also tell you where the play is taking place or give information about how to make the stage look to set the scene.

Stage Left
the part of the stage on the actor’s left as the actor faces the audience

Stage Right
the part of the stage on the actor’s right as the actor faces the audience

Downstage
The area/part of the stage “closest” to the audience

Upstage
The area of the performance space that is “farthest” away from the audience.

Broadway
the name of the oldest professional theatre in New York City; REFERS specifically to plays performed in the large theatres in the district near “Times Square”.

Broadway
500+ seats; begin in the 1920’s to the 1950’s

Off-Broadway
The New York professional theatre located outside the Broadway district; principally in Greenwich Village and around the Upper East and West Sides. Developed in the 50’s when it was considered highly experimental, the off-Broadway theatre is now more of a scaled-down version of the Broadway theatre, featuring musicals and commercial revivals as much as (or more than) original works.

Directorial Concept
derives from controlling idea, vision, or point of view that the director feels is appropriate to the play.

Raked Stage
the SLANT of an auditorium or stage floor , a slanted stage, where upstage is slightly higher than downstage

Fly Loft
space above the stage where scenery may be lifted out of sight by ropes and pulleys

Wings
Torelli’s system also allowed side pieces. SIDE PIECES to be moved into and out of the stage picture.

Social Roles
are general roles recognized by society: father, mother, child, police officer, store clerk, and so on

Personal Roles
develop with our family and friends. (ex.) some people become braggarts, boasting of their (sometimes imaginary) feats or accomplishments.

Subtext
meaning and movement of a play below its surface; that which is NOT stated but IMPLIED

Rituals
is a repetition or reenactment of a proceeding or transaction that has acquired special meaning.

Narrator
speaks directly to the audience

Sound Reproduction
is the use of motivated or environmental sounds , the use of motivated or environmental sounds

Magic “If”
acting exercise/technique which requires the performer to ask, “How would I react ‘IF” I were in this character’s postion , techniques that make you feel for a character, a technique pioneered by Stanislavsky for developing empathy with a character. it involves searching for the answers to the question “What would I do if I were this character in these circumstances?”.

Magic If
Magic “IF” allows actors to find similarities between themselves and a character and to explore the intimate emotions and thoughts that result

Emotional Recall
Strasberg particularly emphasized a technique that Stanislavsky in his earlier writings

Emotional Recall
technique used by Stanislavski by which actors relate to their character’s emotions by recalling similar emotions from their own personal experience.

Typecasting
the casting of roles in a play by choosing actors who most closely resemble the physical and personality descriptions of the characters.

Typecasting
a performer who closely resembles in real life the character to be enacted.

Auteur Directors
“auteur” means author. Vsevolod Meyerhold (1874-1940) term used to describe certain film directors who were said to be the REAL AUTHORS of the films they made. When the director CONTROLS every element of the script

Postmodern Director
broke protocol Isben and Strindberg started this and they included sex

Tech Week
The week also called hell week in which the set, the costumes, the props, etc. are introduces to the characters. Its also the week before the performance.

Exposition
Background information presented in a literary work.

Greek Chorus
(usually consisting of 15 fifteen performers) who in song and dance commented on the action of the main plot and reacted to events in the story.

George M. Cohan
An American songwriter and entertainer of the early twentieth century, known for such rousing songs as “Over There,” “Yankee Doodle Dandy,” and “You’re a Grand Old Flag.”

“War Horse”
Large Puppet that actors used as a real horse. Production which originated at the National Theatre in London.

“War Horse”
-London play about boy named Albert during WWI and his horse Joe

Theatre Spaces
Proscenium, Arena, Thrust, Black Box, Found Space

Proscenium
picture frame stage

Arena
circle stage

Thrust
stage with three (3) quarters seatings

Created and found space
anywhere to put on a play

Black Box
Type of performance space that is small, created out of a room, painted all black. also ‘ALL PURPOSE”

“BLACK BOX”
ALL PURPOSE and all four can be created from this stage (proscenium, arena, thrust, and found space)

Types of Theatre
environmental, multimedia, poor, musicals, book, opera, operetta, revue, minstrel show, traditional tragedy, comedy, melodrama, realism, naturalism, avante-garde, comedy of manners

Milestone Productions in musical theatre
Showboat, Fiddler on the Roof, and their significance

George and Ira Gershwin
(Of Thee I Sing)

George Gershwin
(Porgy and Bess); book by DuBose Heyward

Jerome Kern
(Show Boat) music by Kern

Rodgers Hart
(song: Summertime)

Roles of the director
Creative person; he/she with the support of the stage manager, rehearses the performers and coordinates their work with that of others, such as designers, to make certain the event is performed appropriately, intelligently, and excitingly.

Dramaturg
German word for “dramatic adviser” and/or literary manager

Producer
Coordinates elements; behind-the-scenes counterpart to the director; person who puts the production together

Designers
Scene designers, Stage Costumes, Lighting and Sound

Scene Designer
Creates the visual world in which a play unfolds; together with the playwright and the director the scene designer determines whether a scene is realistic or in the realm of fantasy.

Objectives of Scene Design
1.) Creating an environment for the performers and for the performance
2.) Helping to set the mood and style of the production
3.) Helping to distinguish realistic from nonrealistic theatre
4.) Establishing the locale and period in which the play takes place.
5.) Evolving a design concept in concert with the director and other designers.
6.) Where appropriate, providing a central image or visual metaphor for the production.
7.) Ensuring that the scenery is coordinated with other production elements.
8.) Solving practical problems

Critic
loosely defined, is someone who observes theatre and then analyzes and comments on it. A highly sensitive audience member.

Playwright
A person who writes plays

Artistic Director
The person in charge of the overall creative vision or goal of the ensemble; often chooses which plays to produce, who will direct, and who will design; is also an ambassador to the community, a fundraiser, and the theatre’s chief promoter.

extraordinary characters
Heroes and heroines from most important dramatic works of the past a. Kings
b. Queens
c. Military officials

quintessential characters
1. Replace kings and queens
2. Typical or ordinary
3. Embody an entire group
a. Willy Loman (all salesmen)
b. Nora Helmer (all oppressed women)
4. Not an extreme like worst or best

stock characters
Stock Characters
1. Not fully rounded
2. Exemplify one particular characteristic to exclusion of everything else
3. Known by
a. Station in life
b. Sex
c. Occupation and personality (e.g. “lazy servent;” “absent-minded professor)

Stock characters
4. Most famous examples in commedia dell’arte
a. 16th and 17th century Italy
b. No script; just scenario
c. Characters divided into servants or ruling class

Dominant trait
1. Closely related to stock characters
2. Name often suggests personality
a. Mr. Pinchwife in The Country Wife (a man who holds onto his wife)

Minor characters
1. Unlike stock characters, appear only briefly
2. Purpose is to further story or support important characters

Narrator or chorus
1. Special type of character
2. Narrator usually speaks to audience

Nonhuman Characters
1. Aristophanes
a. Birds
b. Frogs

Illusion
quote…Illusion may be initiated by the creators of theatre but it is completed by the audience

Melodrama
came from “SONG DRAMAS”

Burlesque
vaudeville, singing and dancing; girlie shows, drama sketches that made fun of other theatrical forms.

Opera
drama set entirely to music

Operetta
NOT entirely set to music; certain portions are spoken by performers, as in a regular drama

Musical comedy
form of musical entertainment which emerged in the United States in the 1920’s, and which feature light, comic story interspersed with popular music

Antecedents
operetta, vaudeville, and burlesque

Vaudeville
variety of arts—music, sketches, juggling, animal acts

Libretto
book of a musical

Show Boat
1920’s-1930’s; opened in 1927; Music by (Jerome Kern) and the book and lyrics were by (Oscar Hammerstein)

Show Boat
based on a novel by Edna Ferber about life on a Mississippi riverboat.

Ole Man River
song from Show Boat; “Why do I love You?”

1931
milestone for the American musical

Catfish Row
black community in Charleston, SC

Rodgers and Hart
“On Your Toes”

Oklahoma
1940’s – 1950’s; 1943 musical opened that was to herald the golden age of American book musicals.

Oklahoma
Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II.

Fiddler on the Roof
opened in 1964; 1960’s-1980’s;

Fiddler on the Roof
marked the end of the golden era of book musicals

Four current musical trends
Revivals: ex. ( Annie get your gun; Chicago)
Offbeat Musicals: ex. (Rent)
Musical based on films ex. (The Producers Hairspray)
Music made from former popular stars and groups: ex. Mamma Mia

Costume functions
help establish the style of production
indicate the historical period and locale
indicate the nature
show relationship among characters
symbolically convey the significance
meet the needs of individual performers
be consistent with the production as a whole