The Scientific Method

One smells like a spice, then it would be ground nutmeg, because there are no other spices listed in the list of possible unknowns. If Unknown Substance Two is not soluble in water, then it would be potting soil, because soil does not dissolve. If Unknown Substance Three has a granular and crystalline shape, then it would be brown sugar. If Unknown Substance Four smells like baby powder, then it is baby powder, cause baby powder is a very familiar and known smell.

If Unknown Substance Five smells like a chemical substance, then it would be Alkali-Seltzer. If Unknown Substance Six is soluble in water, then it would be baking soda, because baking soda does dissolve. Color: Dark Brown Brown White Texture: Gritty Oily Dry Shape: Granular and Crystalline Amorphous Smooth and powdery Smooth and Powdery Smell: Specialize Organic Sweet Sour and Chemical Soluble: Soluble in water Insoluble in water Density: 0. 2 0. 33 0. 85 0. 93 0. 6 0. 66 Conclusion: The Kinkajou Substance is Ground Nutmeg. The Unknown Substance is Potting Soil. The Unknown Substance is Brown Sugar. The Unknown Substance is baby powder. The Unknown Substance is Alkali-Seltzer. The Unknown Substance is baking soda. 4.

Make a hypothesis of what you think the identity of each unknown substance is, based on how your current knowledge (color) compares to the list of possible unknowns. Actions Taken: I formulated a hypothesis for each unknown substance based on what was already known, then recorded it in the above Data Table. 5. Peel back the label from Unknown #1, exposing the numbers on the side of the tube. Be careful not to remove the label from the tube, just peel the label enough to expose the numbers. Actions Taken: I carefully peeled the label to the side, revealing the measurements of the tube’s contents. 6. Tap the bottom of the tube for Unknown #1 on a hard surface, such as a table, to settle the substance in the tube and allow for a volume reading.

Actions Taken: I tapped the bottom Of the tube onto the counter, but did not notice a measurable difference or any settling. 7. When the tube contents are settled, estimate the volume of contents in the Unknown #1 tube, to the nearest 0. 1 com, and record the results in Data Table 2, under the “Volume” column, in the “Unknown #1” Row. Actions Taken: I carefully examined the volume of the contents and recorded my findings on Data Table 2. Data Table 2: Calculating Density of Unknown Samples Mass of full vial ; bag (g) Mass of empty vial ; bag (g) Mass of unknown sample (g) Volume (com) Density (Vs.;no) Omitted due to use of digital scale 0. 3 1. 5 #2 0. 5 #3 1. 1 1. 3 1. 4 0. 9 1. 0 8. Repeat steps 5 through 7 for the remaining five unknown substances.

Actions Taken: I followed the format of Step 7 and estimate the contents of Substances 2-6 and recorded the results onto Data Table 2. Note: Because I was provided a digital scale in my Labial, I will be utilizing tepee b. b. Weigh the samples using the Digital Scale Method: a. Use scissors to cut six small square pieces of white paper, with approximate dimensions of 2″ x 2″. B. Fold each piece of paper in half and then fold it in half in the opposite direction to create six small weigh boats. C. Label the weigh boats #1, #2, #3, #4, #5, and d. Turn on the digital scale and place a piece of paper on the scale (for the first unknown use the piece of paper labeled #1 e. Press the TARE button, so the scale reads Zero. F.

Carefully open the container of unknown sample #1 and pour the sample onto the weigh boat labeled “#1”. . Weigh and record the mass of unknown sample #1 in Data Table 2, under the “Mass of Unknown Sample” column, next to sample #1. H. Repeat steps (d) through (g) for the remaining five unknown samples using the five remaining pieces of weigh boat paper labeled #2 through #6. I. Calculate the density of each unknown sample by dividing the mass of the unknown sample by the “Volume. ” Record the density of each unknown sample in Data Table 2. Actions Taken: After cutting out six small square pieces of paper with 2″ x 2″ dimensions, I folded them in half in opposite directions to create six small weigh boats. En labeled them from 1-6 in accordance with their allotted number. Shortly after, I turned on my digital scale and pressed the “TARE” button to clear the reading. Following that, I opened unknown Sample #1, and poured its contents onto the piece of paper resting on the scale. After that, I weighed and recorded the mass of Sample #1 in Data Table 2, and repeated steps (d) through (g) for the remaining five samples. Finally, I calculated the density of all six samples by dividing their mass by their volume. I then recorded my results in Data Table 2. 10. Copy the calculated densities of each unknown sample into Data Table 1 n the row labeled “density,” for the corresponding sample number.

Actions Taken: I copied the calculated densities of each sample into Data Table 1. 11 . Use scissors to cut six small square pieces bobwhite paper, with approximate dimensions of 2″ x 2″ Actions Taken: I cut out six small square pieces of white paper with dimensions of 2″ x 2″. 12. Fold each piece of paper in half and then fold it in half in the opposite direction to create six small weigh boats. Actions Taken: I folded each piece of paper in half and then folded it in half in the opposite direction to create six small weigh boats. 13. Label the weigh boats , #2, #3, #4, and #6. Actions Taken: I labeled each weigh boat in accordance with their sample number. 14. Pick up unknown Sample #1.

Carefully open the container of unknown sample #1 and pour the sample onto the weigh boat labeled “#1 . ” Actions Taken: I poured the contents of Sample #1 onto the corresponding weigh boat. 15. Repeat Step 14 for the remaining five unknown samples. Actions Taken: I repeated Step 14 for each of the unknown Samples. 16. Use the hand lens and your fingers to observe the texture Of all six unknown samples. Record the observations in Data Table 1. Actions Taken: I examined each sample with the hand lens and recorded my observations in Data Table 1. 17. Use the hand lens to observe the shape of each unknown sample. Record the observations in Data Table 1.

Actions Taken: used the hand lens to observe the shape of each unknown sample, and then recorded my findings in Data Table 1. 18. Observe the smell of each unknown sample. Record the observation in Data Table 1. Actions Taken: I wafted the fumes of each sample and cautiously smelled them. I then recorded my observations in Data Table 1. 19. Determine the solubility Of each unknown sample as described in the steps below. Solubility in water: Test for solubility only after completing the previous tests. Use the marker pencil to label six test tubes #1 , #2, #3, #4, #5, and #6. Use your test tube rack to hold the test tubes. Use the spatula to remove a pea-sized amount of each unknown material from its paper and place it in its corresponding test tube.

Use the graduated cylinder to measure and transfer 5 ml of distilled water into each of the six test tubes. Stopper the test tube with a clean, dry rubber stopper and shake vigorously. Actions Taken: I labeled six test tubes in accordance with their respective Sample number and placed them on the test tube rack. I then placed a pea- sized amount of each sample in their corresponding test tube. Following that, utilized the graduated cylinder to measure and transfer 5 ml of distilled water into each of the six test tubes. I then placed a rubber stopper on Sample and shook vigorously to determine its solubility. I repeated this with each sample, and then recorded my results in Data Table 1. OBSERVATIONS: Questions A.

Which of the six measures in the experiment yielded quantitative data? What specifically about the measure was quantitative? Answer: Volume, Mass, and Density all yielded quantitative data. They are numerical measurements hat define the sample, as opposed to qualitative, which describes. B. Which unknowns are you confident that you correctly identified? What specific test was crucial in this confidence? Answer: am confident in my identification of Samples , #2, #3, #4, and #6. Smell was the most critical factor in my confidence. C. One of the most important and unique Steps in the scientific method is the ability to create a new hypothesis if your results do not support your original ideas.

What areas in your life, other than in science class, do you think this type of step would be helpful? Explain your answer. Answer: One rear of my life that can be paralleled to the creation of a new hypothesis due to results that do not support original ideas would be my career. For the longest time, aspired to be a musician despite the staggering odds against me. After a couple of years of gaining no traction and worsening my life’s conditions, I decided to go attend college and pursue a more realistic career path. “Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.