The Ramayana of Valmiki (Norton Anthology Of World Literature Volume A 3rd ed.)

When was the original version written and by whom

Was it written or oral?

Valmiki around 550 BCE


The two other important brothers


How many cuplets and how many books in the canonical Sanskrit version
24,000 couplets

7 books

What two books were added later

In these added boooks who is Rama an avatar of

first and last. They are the frame story


Book 1


Bala (Childhood)

Ravana (king of Lanka) has gone evil,invincible,demonic
Vishnu must descend to Earth in human for to destroy him.
Vishnu takes birth as Rama (eldest son of Da ‘saratha King f Kosala)
Rama and Laksmana become pupils of the sage Visvamitra
Rama and Laksmana go with Visvamitra to Videha and win a contest. The prize is Sita, foster-daughter of that republic’s king.
Sita is actually a child of the Goddess Earth

Rama’s parents


How many wives and sons does Dasaratha have?
4 sons
3 Wives (that have had his kids)

Rama and who are inseparable since birth

Sage that Rama and Laksmana study under

The big bad guy

City that Laksmana, Visvamitra, and Rama go to when they get Sita

Daughter of Earth

Book 2

What does the extended family “intrigue” make Dasaratha do
Make Bharata (second son) the heir and exile Rama for 14 yaers

Ravana’s sister?

What does Ravana do to Rama for revenge for the conflict Rama started
Abducts Sita

Book 4

Who joins them in the search for Sita in book 5

Kiskindha, Kingdom of the Monkeys

Hanumana, powerful leader from the monkey tribe

Book 5

Book 6
Yuddah, The War

Book 7

What happens?

Uttara, The Final Book

In an effort to be morally upright Rama banishes Sita over rumors of infidelity he knows are untrue. Plus she is pregnant

She seeks refuge with Valmikas, gives birth to sons (Lava, Kusa)

They are raised as bards and instructed to sing of their father’s epic beautifully

They go to Rama and sing it, he realizes who the bards are and sends for his queen.

Unfortunately she has suffered too much and wishes to go back with her mother, Earth

Overwhelmed by grief Rama goes back to heaven into his Vishnu form

Rama’s sons
Lava and Kusa

What does this epic support
Morality, following laws, peace, etc

The play of Rama

Modeled after Hanumana
Journey to the West

classic Chinese novel

Priest, memebers of the high cast

Yak-tail fans used to ward of flies

King Dasaratha’s charioteer/chief bard

Rama is equanimous

What must Rama wear as a hermit
tree bark and animal skin

Who puts Bharata on the throne and exiles Rama

how are they able to do this

Kaikeyi, one of king Dasaratha’s wives.

These are two boons granted to her by Dasaratha a long time ago

How is Kaysalya’s relationship with the king and his other wives
Not good. She is treated as lesser

She had hoped Rama becoming king would change that

The religious and moral law, code of righteousness

“dharma, prosperity and pleasure”
reference to first three goals of life for Hindu householders

“religous acts, wealth and public life, and sexual love and family life”

province, divine will

End of action

What is Rama’s justification for what Kaikeyi has done?
It is divine will. Any anger or hate she feels is not her doing but that of divine will therfore she cannot be blamed

Even if a woman doesn’t worship the gods she is blessed if she follows her man???

Where do they all live

What are missiles and how did Rama get them
magical weapons given to worthy heroes by gods/sages

Visvamitra gave them to Rama and Laksmana when they protected his sacrificial rites from demons in book 1

ancient scriptures of the Hundus
The four Vedas

Sita’s father

“Five banyan trees”

Daksa Prajapati
God in ancient Hindu mythology

Who does Rama accept to guard Sita when he is away
A vulture who is friends with Rama’s father

Here does the group live while in exile

Page 1186 footnote 8

What does Laksmana cut off of Supanakha
Nose and ears

The group kill supanakha’s brothers in defense

What place does Ravana rule

Ravana had how many arms, heads
20 arms 10 heads

Broad chested

Wheel with sharp points (Vishnu’s)

What is the only way Ravana can die

How many killed

Who is Rama equal to in regards to charm

How does Surpanakha coax Ravana to act
Tells him Sita is the most beautiful and he could capture her and marry her

What does the front of Ravana’s chariot resemble
Mules with fiendish heads

Ravana’s uncle and a expert in sorcery

What did the group do to flout Ravana’s authority
They promised protection to the ascetics of Dandaka forest


The plan for kidnapping Sita
Mercia will turn into a deer and get the attention of the other two leaving Sita alone. While Sita is alone Ravana will nab her

Demon that got people to eat him so he could kill them by bursting them open

The sage that stopped him



Creator god in the triad of Hindu great gods

What was Ravana disguised as

Brahmana’s can curse people and bestow boons

Rama and Sita’s age when they left he palace


Ages at the time of marriage
Rama – 16

Sita – 8

Child marriage was common in India until recently

Rama’s epithet
God of gods

Name of the vulture

How old is Jatayu

Literally a shower of missles

Why is it good that Ravana has taken Sita
This will inevitably lead to Ravana’s doom

Tribal people or apelike human beings

How can a blade of grass protect Sita from Ravana
Her magical powers allows her to make an effective barrier with anything

Ancient Indan kings and land
They are the husbands of the land they rule and that land is often personified as a goddess

How long does Ravana give Sita to decide to marry him, what will happen if she doesn’t
12 months

She will be cooked for breakfast

Two attributes of immortals
Float and don’t blink

Who is sent to reassure Sita that she’ll be ok and give her the celestial food

Who sent that person

Why did she need reasuring

sent – Indra (chief of the gods)
Sender – Brahma

It’s possible she may commit suicide

Goddess of sleep

Is Rama content with Laksmana’s reason for leaving Sita
Nope, not in his anguished state

Sita’s favorite resort
river Godavari

Charm in the…
Brilliance in the….
Motion in the …
Endurance in the…

What does Rama do with Jatayu’s body
Cremates it

Sacred chants, usually from scriptures
Vedic Mantras

Brother of Jatayu

King of the monkeys

Greek myth that the story of Sampati is similar too

Sampati’s son

What quality do vultures have?
They are voracious eaters, insatiable hunger

What sage predicated that Sampati would get his wings back?


rksa, a bear
What is Jambavan

Thunderbolt-wielding king of the gods, Zeus counterpart

What is special about Hanuman

Who is his parent?

He can only die when he wants to


Why did the sun not scorch Hanuman
He was helping Rama on his quest

God of the ocean

God of mountains

Hanuman’s three shows of strength
taking off in flight
Not stopping to rest
getting past Surasa

Demon that attacks Hanuman on the open sea

Hanuman’s four virtues

He does not despair in any undertaking

How long was Hanuman’s journey to Lanka
800 miles

How many men in the garrison guarding Ravana’s house

Name of the best chariot

The mother that exiles Rama