Short Story Elements, Levels ; Dimensions of Settings, Point of View In Literature Review

Define the Social/Psychological dimension of Setting.
This can be considered the “human dimension” or the “interactive space” of a setting. This involves what kind of interactions occur (between characters, between the characters and their environment, etc.) in the setting and the psychological features of the setting.

Regarding Contact as it relates to Point of View, on what scale could the narrator’s attitude toward the audience be plotted?
The narrator’s attitude toward the audience could be plotted on the following scale:
_______________________________________Respect Contempt

Define Rising Action.
This is the series of struggles (conflicts and complications) that builds a story toward its climax.

What is symbolism?
A symbol is something (such as an object, person, situation or action) in a literary work which maintains its own meaning while at the same time representing something broader that itself.

What are the 3 levels of setting?
Microsystem
Mesosystem
Macrosystem

Define the two ways in which setting is temporal (relating to time)?
On the one hand, a fully involved narrator might be suspect because of his or her self interest in how that involvement is characterized.
On the other hand, an uninvolved narrator might not have access to critically important elements of the story, such as, for example, the emotional response that the informed characters have to the story’s events.

What are the 3 key points to consider if we are going to evaluate a narrator with story he/she is telling?
Status, Contact and Stance

Define status as it relates to point of view in literature.
Status is the authority, competence and credibility (or believability) which the narrator is allowed.

Define Macrosystem.
This level has the least influence – includes aspects such as international relations or global changes or even more abstract aspects of culture.

What is an allegory? Can you give an example?
A story in which people, things and actions represent an idea or generalization about life. An example would be the story of the Tortoise and the Hare (slow and steady wins the race) or the story of David and Goliath (size/power do not always win)..

Why is a narrator’s involvement in a story crucial to point of view?
On the one hand, a fully involved narrator might be suspect because of his or her self interest in how that involvement is characterized.
On the other hand, an uninvolved narrator might not have access to critically important elements of the story, such as, for example, the emotional response that the informed characters have to the story’s events.

What is a simile?
A comparison of two things using the comparison words of “like” or “as” to build a clearer understanding.

What is are some other examples of figurative language?
Metaphor – A comparison of two unlike things using the comparison words of “like” or “as” to build a clearer understanding/meaning (Ex: “You spin my head right round, right round, like a record baby, round, round, round round…)
Personification – When the author speaks of or describes an animal, object, or idea as if it were a person (Ex: “The moon smiled down at me.”)
Oxymoron – The combination of opposite or contradictory terms put into a single term (Ex: “jumbo shrimp).

What are the three dimensions of setting?
Physical, Temporal and Social/Psychological.

Define Contact as it relates to Point of View in Literature.
The relationship a speaker or writer establishes with an audience.

Define the Mesosystem level of setting.
This level has a little less influence than a microsystem – it contains larger and less personal institutions such as government, transportation, entertainment, news organizations or geographic regions larger than the neighborhood.

What is an allusion? Can you give an example?
An allusion is an indirect reference to a familiar person, place or event (particularly from literature, history, the Bible, or a famous movie, etc.) that the writer expects the reader to recognize. (Ex: “Our relationship is clearly like the Titanic.”

What are 3 examples of external conflict in a story?
Man vs. Man (or group of people)
Man vs. Society
Man vs. Nature/Animal
Man vs. Supernatural
Man vs. Fate or Destiny.

What is the microsystem level of setting?
This level contains a human’s most immediate and earliest influences. Includes the family, friends and peer groups, and neighborhood and community institutions such as school and church.

What is an omniscient narrator?
An all knowing observer who can describe all the characters’ actions, thoughts and feelings (knows “everything about everything” in the story.

What does a plot include?
Whatever the characters do.
Whatever the characters say.
Whatever the characters think.
Whatever happens to the characters.
Whatever the characters cause to happen to others.