Outliers Literary Terms and Examples

Deductive Organization
Definition: begins with a recommendation and follows with information to support that recommendation

Example: pg. 19-34. Gladwell introduces his thesis where success is based upon their culture, opportunities, and advantages. This is an example of deductive organization because Gladwell presents his thesis that players born earlier in the year receive an advantage of opportunity to practice ahead and then presents birthdates from each hockey player from the 2007 Medicine Hat Tigers to support his thesis.

Inductive Organization
Definition: supplies examples, facts, or reasons first, and then draws conclusions from them

Example: pg. 177-223. Gladwell cites several incidences of plane crashes and information about the pilots. This is an example of inductive organization because Gladwell introduces background information of the pilots from the crashes, then he presents his thesis that the cultural background the pilots came from influenced the way they interact with other pilots and receive information.

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Exemplification
Definition: uses specific, vivid examples for the purpose of adding more information to explain, persuade, define, or illustrate a general idea

Example: pg. 250-269. The story of Marita, who attended the Knowledge is Power Program Academy, is being told. This is an example of exemplification because Gladwell narrates the story of a young girl name Marita and her school life at KIPP Academy. She works hard for her education, which is unusual for a young girl to go through. Her story defines success can be fulfilled with determination and motivation to be successful.

Cause/Effect
Definition: start with subject and then show the causes for it and the effects of it

Example: pg. 191. The pilot considers the risks of communicating to his higher authority. This is an example of Cause/Effect because the pilot evaluates the causes and effects of speaking up to his higher authorities, which eventually proves the point of communication barriers depending on cultural legacies.

Description:
Definition: clear description of people, places, objects, or events using appropriate details

Example: pg. 116-158. Joe Flom’s road to success is being interpreted. This is an example of Description because Gladwell describes the events leading up to Joe Flom’s success. Explaining the process informs the readers the challenges and advantages he endured.

Process Analysis
Definition: explains how to do something, how something works, or how something happens

Example: pg. 224-249. The importance of rice throughout Asia is explained in this chapter. This is an example of process analysis because Gladwell elaborates the process of cultivating rice patties in order to imply the importance of rice in their diet and cultural lifestyle.

Narration
Definition: relates a clear sequence of events that occurs over time

Example: pg. 161-176. The stories of the family feud between the Howards and the Turners. This is an example of narration because Gladwell recounts the events of the Howard clan and Turner clan in Harlan, Kentucky. The effect of the stories informs the audience of how cultural legacies play a role in human encounters.

Comparison/Contrast
Definition: comparison shows similarity between objects, and contrast shows the difference between objects

Example: pg. 91-115. The stories of Chris Langan and is compared and contrasted with Robert Oppenheimer. This is an example of Comparison/Contrast because Gladwell compared their similar genius intelligence and their contrasting lifestyle that they grew up in. It is important because even though they had great intelligence, they both ended up on different paths.

Exposition:
Definition: introduces background information about events, settings, characters, etc. to the audience or readers

Example: pg. 69-116. Gladwell provides background information about Chris Langan in both chapters. This is an example of Exposition because Gladwell informs the audience on Langan’s background information to prove Gladwell’s theory where cultural legacy is important.

Persuasion
Definition: presents reasons and examples to influence action of thought

Example: pg. 250-269. Gladwell presents data and examples of the elementary kids to prove his theory. This is an example of Persuasion because Gladwell ends his book with sufficient evidence from kids of KIPP to persuade his readers.

Repetition
Definition: repeats the same words or phrases a few times to make an idea clearer

Example: pg. 224-269. The symbolism of rice pattys is mentioned multiple times in both chapters. This is an example of repetition because Gladwell mentions rice pattys repeatedly to symbolize motivation and determination to survive in the real world.

Syllogism
Definition: starts an argument with a reference to something general and from this it draws conclusion about something more specific

Example: pg. 15-34. Gladwell introduces the argument with the data of 2007 Medicine Hat Tigers Hockey team. This is an example of Syllogism because Gladwell begins the book with the birthdates of the hockey players, and then he draws conclusions from the data.

Logos
Definition: statement, sentence, or argument used to convince or persuade the targeted audience by employing reason or logic

Example: pg. 184. Gladwell gives statistics on the causes of plane crashes. This is an example of logos because data and statistics provide a legitimate answer which provides a satisfying answer knowing it is legitimate.

Ethos
Definition: represents credibility or an ethical appeal which involves persuasion

Example: pg. 187. Gladwell references Suren Ratwatte on plane crashes. This is an ethos appeal because Gladwell describes the veteran pilot’s background who has been involved for years in human factors research, which appeals Ratwatte’s credibility of knowledge and experience in this field.

Pathos
Definition: quality of an experience in life or a work of art that stirs up emotions of pity, sympathy, and sorrow

Example: pg. 91-115. Gladwell provides background information from Chris Langan for the readers to understand his struggles. This is an example of pathos because his childhood of poverty made it hard for him to survive in the real world; as a result, his chances of using his intelligence to impact the world was slim. Gladwell informs the audience in attempt to establish a personal relationship with Chris Langan and the readers.