Organizational culture

All these topics are applied on Avoidance organization and we made for every topic we talked about in this project a questionnaire which strutted on people who have worked in Avoidance organization. The questionnaire we made it and distributed makes us understand and know the organizational behavior of this organization and this comes from applying the previous mentioned five topics on Avoidance. General Introduction This project presents three important issues which applied on Avoidance Organization.

These three topics the bases of the organization behavior and without it the organization will fail in the nearest time first of all the project talk about the personality and values that measures the heartsickness of each employee and if this characteristics help the company to move forward this person must continue in the company ,the second thing is the perception and individual decision measure the feeling and the belonging to the company if he feel that he is part of the company or not ,the third thing Is job satisfaction and attitudes and this measure the ability of this person to continue or not in the company.

After that there is a questionnaire to collect information about the employee in the company. There are also two important topics that we discuss it and evaluate it through questionnaire he first topic is in the personal leadership and how the leadership affects on the organization weather negative or positive. The second topic talks about the organizational culture and also there is a questionnaire that answers some questions about Avoidance Organization. All the topics have a questionnaire and this questionnaire is distributed among people who have worked in Avoidance organization.

Every questionnaire has findings and analysis and all the analysis and findings comes in percentages and verbal analysis form. The entire project has one conclusion and recommendations which sums up all the work done in the finding and analysis of the entire project. This entire project through discussing five main topics of the organizational behavior it studies these five main topics on Avoidance organization. So as to be an organizational behavior project application on Avoidance organization to apply what we discuss on real work application.

Theoretical Review Attitude and Job Satisfaction Attitude is evaluative statement either favorable or unfavorable about objects, people or event. It reflects how we feel about something. Components of Attitude: Cognitive attitude : The aspect of attitude that is description of or a belief in things are . Affective component: Affect is the emotional or feelings segments’ Of an attitude. Behavioral components: refers to an intention to behave in certain way toward something or someone. If we talk about behavior and attitude it means that the more closely the attitude and behavior are matched the stronger the relationship.

Specific attitude tend to predict specific behavior. Discrepancies between attitude and behavior are likely occurring when social pressure to behave in certain ways holds exceptional powers. Finally, the attitude behavior is likely to be much stronger if attitude refers to something with which individual has direct personal experience. Job satisfaction is positive feelings about a job resulting from an evaluation of its Characteristics, jobs require interacting with coworkers, following rules and meeting performance.

The two approach used are single global rating and summation scores . The single global rating is nothing more than a response to question , how satisfied are you in the job. The other approach is more sophisticated , it identifies key elements in job and asks for employee linings about each . If we need to know if people satisfied in job the answer seems to be yes in most developed countries . Other thing research found that satisfaction vary a lot , depending on which facet of job satisfaction you are talking about .

The causes of job satisfaction is enjoying the work that almost always the one most strongly correlated with high levels of overall job satisfaction . Interesting job that provide like training , independence , especially most people prefer work that is challenging and stimulating over work . There is a relation between salary and job satisfaction. People ho are poor doesn’t collaborate with job satisfaction and with happiness because money motivate people . People who are less positive about themselves are less likely to like their jobs . They need to be positive not negative about themselves. Happy employees are productive employees. ” “Happy employees are not productive Employees. ” We hear these conflicting statements made by HRS professionals and managers in organizations. There is confusion And debate among practitioners on the topic of employee attitudes and job satisfaction-? even at a time when employees are increasingly important for organizational success and imitativeness. Perception and Individual Decision Making Perception is process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impression in order to give meaning to their environment .

Fife need to know importance or perception of B is that people behavior is based on their perception of what reality is , not on reality itself . To explain how individual may look at the same things and yet perceive it differently , A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside in the perceive in which perception is made. Personal characteristics that affect perception include persons attribute , personality , motives , interest and past expectation . People are More likely to be noticed in a group than quit ones. There is something important called attribution theory is that it tries to explain ways in which we judge people differently depending on meaning we attribute to given behavior It suggest when we observe behavior of individual we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally. Internally is what we imagine to be under the personal control of individual. While externally is what we imagine the tuition forced the individual to do.

This determination depends on three things: Distinctiveness : Refers to whether an individual displays different behavior in a different situation . Consensus : If everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way . Consistency: Looking in persons actions. Individual decision making It was said that best decision making is rational and make consistent within specified constraint . It relies on number of assumption include that the decision making has complete information , is able to identify all relevant options and choose the option with highest utility.

Steps in rational decision making process: 1- Define the problem 2- Identify the decision criteria 3- Allocate weight to criteria 4- Develop the alternatives 5- Evaluate the alternatives 6- Select the best The least rational intuition . Intuition alternatives way of making the decision making is relying on is not rational , but that’s doesn’t necessarily make it wrong . It can be powerful force in decision making , it doesn’t necessarily operate in opposition to rational analysis , and it can be created by experience and it links between disparate pieces of information and it is usually engaged to emotions

Perception as defined, by Stephen P. Robbins, “… Is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment” (2005, p. 134). Humans habitually interpret what they see, hear, touch, taste, and smell into something that makes logical sense. Each individual sees, hears, touches and smells things differently. Thus, people vary in perception. People see what they want to see; hear what they want to hear; smell what they want to smell; feel what they want to feel; and taste what they want to taste not what is, in fact, there.

Human behavior s shaped by their perceptions not on facts. There are also multiple factors that influence one’s perceptions. Personality and Values Personality is sum total ways in which an individual reacts to and interact with another . Managers need to know how to measure personality. Scores in personality help mangers to forecast who is the best for job , and also some people need to know how people score in personality tests to better understand the people who work for them. Observer rating surveys provides independent assessment of personality. Resonantly appears to be a result of both heredity and environmental actors. Heredity means factors determined at conception , ex: facial attractiveness , gender and energy level , but sometimes people personality do change but research said that change in personality doesn’t affect on rank ordering very much . Popular characteristics include shy , aggressive, lazy and ambitious when some are exhibits these characteristics we call this personality traits the more consistent the characteristics the important the traits describing the individuals.

Five types of personality model: 1) Extroversion : capture ones comfort level with relationship , it tend to e gregarious , assertive and sociable . While introvert tends to be quite, reserved. 2) Agreeableness : Refers to individual propensity to defer to others , high agreeable people are cooperative and warm. 3) Conscientiousness: is measure of reliability. High conscientiousness IS responsible , organize , dependent while low is reliable and distracted . 4) Stability Emotional : is labeled by converse , neurotics tapes a person’s ability to withstand stress . People with positive tend to be calm and self confident while people with low became nervous and anxious and insecure . ) Openness to experience : defines ones range of interest and fascination with novelty . Open people are creative , curious while end of open are conventional and comfort in the familiar . Values it represent base conviction that a specific mode at conduct is personally . They contain judgment elements in that they carry individuals ideas as to what is right It is both content and intensity attribute. The intensity of conduct says that mode of conduct is important and it specifies how important is it .

When we rank individual values in term of their intensity we obtain that persons value system This system is identified by relative importance we assign to values such as freedom , pleasure and self respect . Values tend to be stable and enduring. It IS very important to study at organizational behavior because they lay the foundation for our understanding of people attributes and motivation . Values influence both attitude and behavior. People are more likely to be appreciated and rewarded if they are fit in their jobs. Human values have been defined as . Cognitive constructs that explain individual differences in regard to aims in life and behavior principles and priorities” (Renee, 2003). Lopper and Vernon (1931) constructed six category taxonomy of values: political, social, economic, theoretical, religious and aesthetic. Empirical studies have identified 10 categories of values: power, achievement, hedonism, simulation, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity and security (Schwartz, 1992). Those types are seen as specific wishes related to behavior, people or events (Bilks& Schwartz, 1994).

For instance, well-being, a predictor of personal health and adjustment to environment, depends on the congruence between personal values and the prevailing value environment Saving& Schwartz, 2000). Organizational Culture Organizational culture refers to system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishing the organization from another . This system of shared meaning is set of key characteristics that organize values . Also it is an idea in the field of organizational studies and management which describes the psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organization. Characteristics organizational culture: 1- Innovation and risk taking : The degree to which employee are encouraged to take risk . 2- Attention to detail The degree to which employee are expected to exhibit precision and attention to detail . 3- Outcome orientation : The degree to which management focus on result rather than techniques used to achieve these outcome . 4- People orientation : The degree to which management decision take into consideration the effect of outcome of people . 5- Team orientation The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals. – Aggressiveness : The degree to which employees are aggressive rather than easygoing. 7- Stability: The degree to which organizational culture emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast o growth . Organizational culture is concerned with how employees perceive the characteristics of organizational culture not with what they like them. That’s descriptive team. It is important because it differentiate this concept from job satisfaction. It also represent a common perception hold by organizations members .

Having common perception doesn’t mean that there cannot be subculture within any culture. Large organization has dominant culture and subculture. Dominant culture expresses core value that is shared by majority of organizations members. Subculture tends to develop in large organization to reflect common problem. If we talk about strong VS. weak culture , In strong culture , The organization core value are both intensively and widely spread . The more members who accept core values , the greater the commitment is, the stronger the culture is . Organizational culture can go either way.

Good culture can make every worker stronger, and even the most average worker’s contribution exceptional while bad culture can destroy even the most talented individuals. There are two challenges that face organizational culture which are: A; Adapting to the problems and challenges that occur in the external environment that affect the group in order to survive. B ; Taking individuals from outside the already established organizational culture and passing on the group values, thus uniting a group of independent individuals into a cohesive whole that can benefit everyone more than individual efforts.

Also we have culture VS. formalization: Strong culture increase behavioral consistency. High formalization creates predictability and consistency. We should view formalization and culture as two different roads to common extinction. The important thing is to know is culture function : First thing it creates distinction between one organization and another . Second thing it conveys sense of identity for organization member. Third culture facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than other individual self interest . Fourth it enhance the stability of social system . Anally it serves as a sense making and control mechanism that shape the attitude and behavior of employees. Personal Leadership Leadership is ability to influence a group toward the achievement of vision or Set of goals. The source of these goals may be formal. Also Ithaca been described as the “process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen. 7] Trait theories of leadership differentiate leaders from non leader by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics . The search of personality , social , physical would describe leaders and differentiate them from non leaders goes back to earliest stage of leadership research. If the behavioral appeal to leadership was successful , it would have implication quit different from those of the trait approach . Trait research provide basis for selecting the right person to assume formal position in group. In contrast if the behavioral studies were turn up critical we could train people to be leader .

Trait theories assume that leaders are born rather than made . If there were specific design program that identified leader then we could teach leadership . Good leadership in the modern age more importantly requires attitudes and behaviors which characterize and relate to humanity. Good leaders are followed chiefly because people trust and respect them, rather than the skills they possess. Leadership is about behavior first, skills second. Good leadership depends on attitudinal qualities, not management processes. Leadership is centrally concerned with people.

Of course leadership involves decisions and actions relating to all sorts of other things, but leadership is special compared to any other role because of its unique responsibility of people. Examples of highly significant leadership qualities: Integrity, honesty, humility, courage, commitment, sincerity, passion, inference, positivist, wisdom, determination, compassion and sensitivity. Company profile History Background on Avoidance Avoidance Egypt is a total telecommunications provider, covering a wide array of voice and data exchange services, as well as 36, ADDS and broadband Internet services.

Launched in 1998, Avoidance Egypt supported by Avoidance Group’s know-how and its own local market research provides innovative products perfectly suited for its customers. The leading Avoidance Egypt spirit and its ever broadening network have paved the way for numerous investment opportunities and world-class continuous customer support. Avoidance investments in Egypt are an evident reflection of its commitment to its civic involvement for a stronger market foothold, both on the short and long terms.

When the Avoidance Egypt General Assembly voted in September 2006 in favor of the acquisition of 51 % of Ray Telecoms shares – a telecoms leader on its own right, the aim was to secure further expansion of corporate communication services, serving different Egyptian businesses and companies. A further acquisition of up to 97. 52% of Ray Telecoms shares followed after the ground-breaking success of the initial step. Later, Avoidance secured an even stronger market share when Telecoms Egypt pushed for a major increase of its own Avoidance corporate share from 25. 5% to 44. 7% in a massive stock acquisition move.