Literary Terms: Sonnet – Peripeteia

Sonnet
A highly structured 14-line poem, usually in iambic pentameter, with a varied rhyme scheme/plan. For a Shakespearean one, the rhyme scheme goes “ABAB CDCD EFEF GG”

Iambic Pentameter
The standard metrical form used by Shakespeare; each line consists of 10 syllables or 5 feet (2 syllables/1 foot). It’s easy rhythm and meter reflect a natural speaking voice or a heartbeat

Pun
A play on words

Oxymoron
The pairing of two contradictory words together

Foil
Usually a character who, by contrast, highlights the qualities of any character

Antithesis
A contrast of words or ideas in a balanced or paralleled construction

Chiasmus
The reversal of words when used in parallel expressions which creates an “AB BA” pattern

Soliloquy
A speech where the speaker is alone with his private thoughts and informs the audience what he/she is thinking. These are always truthful.

Blank Verse
Unrhymed iambic pentameter which is very close to natural speech rhythms

Motif
A recurring, salient (stands out), thematic element (image, word, phrase, action, idea, object or situation). Usually one is not tangible or concrete

Paradox
A contradiction which is nonetheless true

Peripeteia
A reversal of circumstances in a TRAGEDY (specific to a tragedy)

foreshadowing
a hint or suggestion of something to come

rhetoric
the art of effective expression and persuasive use of language

rhetorical question
a rhetorical device where a question is posed for effect and impact. an answer to the question is not wanted

hypophora
a rhetorical device that involves asking a question and then quickly answering it. used for emphasis and focus

hyperbole
an exaggeration of some part of a statement in order to give it emphasis or focus

symbol
something that represents something else by association or resemblance

metaphor
a comparison that calls one thing by the name of something else

imagery
a word/group of words which appeal to one or more of the senses. figurative language may create imagery as well. intensifies the impact of the work

verbal irony
occurs when an author or character says one thing and means something else (sarcasm)

dramatic irony
occurs when an audience or reader understands something that a character in the literature does not know

situational irony
a difference between the expected result and the actual result

epic
an extended narrative poem, exalted in a style and heroic, involves knowledge, invention, and skill

myth
an anonymous tale emerging from the traditional beliefs of a culture. explanations for natural phenomenon to make sense of the world

archetype
a word used to describe an original pattern or model from which all other things of the same type are made

allegory
a story where characters, events, and objects have both literal and metaphorical meaning- operating on two levels at once

epithet
a characterizing word or phrase accompanying or occurring in the place of a person/thing

rhetorical question
A man steals candy and then says “Oh, did you want that?”

hypophora
“Did I think it was funny? Yes I did.”

hyperbole
The clouds were as big as the moon

symbol
the conch as democracy

metaphor
Her face is a rose

imagery
The flowers were red and smelled of candy

verbal irony
“Wow, that’s great!” after getting into a car accident

dramatic irony
We know Juliet is alive but Romeo doesn’t

situational irony
a fire station burns down, a marriage counselor gets divorced, a cop is arrested, etc

sonnet
romeo and juliet speak to each other romantically through these

pun
The duck said to the bartender, ‘put it on my bill.’

oxymoron
icy hot

foil
Mercutio and Romeo

antithesis
it was the best of times, it was the worst of times

antithesis
one small step for man, one giant leap for man kind

antithesis
Speech is silver, but Silence is Gold

chiasmus
One should eat to live, not live to eat

chiasmus
Never let a fool kiss you–or a kiss fool you.

chiasmus
You forget what you want to remember, and you remember what you want to forget.

soliloquy
When juliet speaks from her balcony

motif
Night in Romeo and Juliet

paradox
the earth is a tomb and a womb

epic
The Odyssey

myth
Tortoise and the hare

peripetia
when Romeo kills tybalt

allegory
old major as karl marx

epithet
“With her fingertips of rose” describing dawn