Literary Terms 17th-18th Century

What does prosperous mean?
rich

What are debts?
money that is owed

what is conceit?
exaggerated comparison in literature

What is exaggerated?
made to seem better, worse larger, or more important than is true or usual.

what is Metaphysical poetry?
Poetry that focuses on the SPIRITUAL WORLD. Characteristics include intellectual playfulness, argument, paradoxes, irony, and elaborate and unusual conceits; focuses on the spiritual life as opposed to the physical.

What is a Metaphysical Conceit?
Extended metaphor or symbol.

What is a Paradox?
A statement that seems to be a contradiction, but actually presents a truth.

what is Satire?
Writing that ridicules the faults of a group or society-uses wit or sarcasm.

What is Tone?
The speaker’s attitude toward the subject or the person he/she is addressing.

what is the Enlightenment/Age of Reason?
Admired harmony, restraint and clarity.

What kind of writing did the Neo-Classical Writers write?
Imitated the styles of classical writers and often referred to myths, gods, and heroes of ancient times.

what does Carpe diem mean?
Latin phrase meaning “seize the day”

When was Charles I Crowned?
In 1625.

What was the basic question that Charles I argued with Parliament over?
money

What did Charles need money for?
Wars

What did Charles I do when Parliament refused to fund his wars?
Charles extorted money from loans and forced the poor into service.

What did Charles do when Parliament tried to abuse of power?
He dissolved Parliament and did not call it into session in the next eleven years.

How did Charles stirred religious conflict?
He insisted that the clergymen “conform” to the Anglican Church.

Why were the Puritans and Calvinists enraged by Charles’ requirements?
They were trying to purify the church of its Catholic traditions.

What happened in 1642?
Parliament condemned Charles as a tyrant and a civil war broke out.

Who led the Government Forces that captured Charles the First?
Oliver Cromwell captured Charles the First.

What happened to Charles?
He was convicted of treason and beheaded on January 30, 1649.

What did Oliver Cromwell do after the death of Charles?
He led the new government called the ENGLISH COMMONWEALTH and ruled as a dictator.

When was the monarchy restored?
When Charles the II was crowned king in 1660.

What was the Glorious Revolution?
In 1689 there was a BLOODLESS REVOLUTION. No one was killed.

What did William and Mary do?
They agreed to respect a Bill of Rights passed by Parliament.

What did the Bill of Rights do?
It gave Parliament more more power and eventually a unified leadership of the Prime Minister and Parliament began to rule the country.

What happened in England during the mid 1700’s?
British farms produced more food, and fewer people were needed to work the fields. People moved from the countryside to the towns to work in the factories.

What inventions contributed to Britain’s economic revolution and increased wealth?
Spinning and weaving of cloth, the steam engine and factories.

What did the Enlightenment believe?
People of the enlightenment believed that through REASON and OBSERVATION of nature, human beings can discover the order underlying all things.

What did Sir Isaac Newton publish?
A study on gravity and the movement of the planets.

What did John Donne pioneer?
A new witty and intellectual style of poetry called METAPHYSICAL poetry

What did Ben Johnson look for in literature?
Perfection and Harmony

What did the Puritan Writer, John Milton write?
Paradise Lost which reflected his humanistic love of poetry and his PURITAN DEVOTION.

What QUALITIES did Enlightenment writers admire?
Harmony, Restraint and Clarity among the ancient Greek and Roman writers.

What were the writers who imitated the classical writers called?
Neo (New) Classic

When did the theatres in England reopen?
When Charles II became King. They were much fancier than during the time of Shakespeare.

What kind of writer was Alexander Pope and what did he write?
He was a neoclassical writer. His most famous work was THE RAPE OF THE LOCK: a satire on the war between the sexes.

What influenced the writings of Jonathon Swift and what did he write?
He was a critic of the Merchant Class. He write satires which presented human nature as DEEPLY FLAWED. He wrote
1. GULLIVERS TRAVELS
2. A MODEST PROPOSAL

What poems were CARPE DIEM Poems?
To His Coy Mistress and To the Virgins to Make Much of Time. They are more about living for today.

What were the Metaphysical Poems?
Meditation 17 and A Valedication Forbidding Mourning because they were about the spiritual themes: Heaven and death