Literary Midterm

Supplement –
Jacques Derrida, deconstruction, hierarchy, metaphysics, binary opposition, unclear relation. A term used to explain the relationship between two parts of any hierarchy upon which Western culture bases its metaphysics. For example, Derrida says Western culture values light over dark, which the relationship between the two is not totally clear. Derrida uses the term supplement to refer to the unstable relationship between the two elements. Each term helps define the other and is necessary for the other to exist.

Discourse
Postcolonial, Marxism, Feminism, Orientalism, mindset, ISA, ideology, a way of thinking that is influenced by ideology, culture, education, politics, and others. Discourse refers not only to speech patterns but also a particular mindset secured by philosophical assumptions that force a person to interpret the world in a particular fashion.

Mirror Stage
Jacques Lacan, Psychoanalytic, psyche, castration, three orders, the imaginary order, symbolic, real. The time between six- eighteen months when the child leaves the Imaginary order and sees its own reflection in the mirror and begins to conceived itself as an independent being. This stage also marks the beginning of socialization, with its prohibitions and restraints associated with the father figure.

Penis envy
Sigmund Freud, Psychoanalytic, Feminism, lack, electra effect, castrated, want to be desired. The unfulfilled desire all women have for a penis; this desire causes them to possess a sense of lack throughout their lives which they can later obtain through birthing children and then the feces stage.

Freud’s Tripartite Model
Freud, Psychoanalytic, psyche, raw desires. His most famous model of the human psyche. In this model Freud divides the psyche into three parts: the id/raw desires, the ego/logic, and the superego/social & ethical. “Can’t have all the tacos!” -Dr. P. Ingram

Phallocentrism
Jacques Lacan, Psychoanalytic, male-dominance, lack of penis, binary opposition, patriarchy. The belief that the phallus is the source of power in culture and literature; usually accompanied by male-centered, male-dominant patriarchal assumptions.

Sexual Politics
Kate Millet, Feminism, patriarchy, male-dominance, suppression, ideology, Sexual Politics (1969). Become synonymous with the second wave of feminism which asserts that economic inequality and ideological indoctrination have been the chief causes of women’s oppression and places patriarchy at the center of the feminist movement. The term also denotes distinctions between sex and gender, the first being biological and the latter being psychological.

Canon
Feminism, ideological, patriarchy, reading/writing like women. The collected works of an author or of a tradition. Usually contains works of white, male authors which forced non-male/white readers to compare themselves to the former. Dictated an ideology of Caucasian patriarchy.

Materialist Feminism
Feminism, Juliet Mitchell, Jacqueline Rose, Catherine Belsey. One of four major categories of contemporary feminism that emphasizes goods and material reality.

Orientalism
Edward Said, Postcolonialism, discourse, other, oppression. Refers to the creation of non-European stereotypes that suggest “orientals,” or Asians, are indolent, thoughtless, sexually immoral, unreliable, and demented.

Hermeneutics
Structuralism, Decon, New Critics, Formalism, Psychoanalytic, Feminism, Marxism, Potcolonial. First defined by religious scholars as the art and science of biblical interpretations, this term now refers to any theory and practice of interpretation. From the Greek hermeneutike.

Dialectic Materialism
Marx and Engels, Marxism, ideology, discourse, base, superstructure. Used to refer to the core beliefs of Marxism, claiming that our ideas and concepts about ourselves are fashioned in everyday discourse in the language of real life and are not derived from any spiritual reality; materiality. In addition, the economic means of production within a society – its base – engenders and controls all human institutions and ideologies – the superstructure.

Hegemony
Antonio Gramsci, Marxism, ideology, superstructure, discourse, systems. Referring to the system of beliefs, values, and meanings to which most people in a given society subscribe. According to Gramsci, a given society’s hegemony may be successful but never complete. Marxist critics assert that the dominant culture in a given society is under the control of the bourgeoisie.

Capital
Marxism, compensation, ISA, free-labor, profit. The available wealth accrued by the capitalist in the profit between the amount he pays the worker and the amount he sells the commodity for. Dependent on the unpaid labor power of the worker.

False consciousness
Karl Marx, Marxism, ideology, proletariat, dominant, bourgeoisie, other. Used to describe how the consciousness of the working class is shaped and controlled by the bourgeoisie. By defining what it means to be an individual and, thereby, prescribing its class consciousness, the bourgeoisie creates a false consciousness for the proletariat and perpetuates the dominant class’s social structure.

Interpellation
Louis Althrusser, Marxism, Feminism, Postcolonial, discourse, ideology, Frantz Fanon. Called by ideology, also known as “hailing the subject”, this term is used to refer to the process whereby the dominant hegemony, or prevailing ideology, forms the attitudes of people in society.

Base
Karl Marx, Marxism, superstructure, economy, capitalism, ISA, RSA, labor. Used to designate the economic structure of society. According to Marx, the various methods of economic production and the social relationships they engender form the base. In the U.S, for example, Marxism asserts that the capitalists exploit the working classes determining for them their salaries and their working conditions. Salaries and working conditions are the base.

Superstructure
Karl Marx, Marxism, ISA, RSA, ideology, proletariat, base. Used to designate that part of a culture that contains the social, legal, political, and educational systems along with the religious beliefs, values, and art of a society and which embodies a society’s ideology that is controlled by the dominant social class, or the bourgeoisie. By controlling the base, the bourgeoisie determines a society’s superstructure and, thus, controls and oppresses the proletariat.

Organic Unity
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, New Critics, text, reflect. Describing the concept that a text’s structure is similar to a living plant with all its parts supporting each other and living in a complex interrelationship. The concept of organic unity of a work of art declares that each part of a text reflects and helps support the text’s central idea/ the work’s chief paradox. Each part serves to enhance the whole.

Dialogic
Mikhail Bakhtin, Russian Formalism, langue. A concept that declares that all language is a dialogue in which a speaker and a listener form a relationship. All language is the product of at least two people.

Heteroglossia
Mikhail Bakhtin, Russian Formalism. This term is used to demonstrate the multiple languages that operate in any given culture. For Bakhtin, all forms of social speech that people use in their daily activities constitute heteroglossia. Literally interpreted “other or different tongues” from the Russian word raznorecie.

Symbolic Order
Jacques Lacan, Psychoanalytic, mirror stage, imaginary order, real order, castration, phallocentrism. The second phase of our psychic development, during which we learn languages. In this stage we also learn to differentiate between genders, master gender differences, and learn cultural norms and laws. Furthermore, we learn that our fathers represent these cultural norms, and this we master a male view of the world.

Affective Fallacy
Wimsatt, Jr., Beardsley, New Critics, text. Used to explain that a reader’s emotional response to a text is neither important nor equivalent to its interpretation. Believing those who evaluate a work of art on the basis of its emotional effect are incorrect. Belief that a poem’s meaning was determined solely from a close reading of a text.

Intentional Fallacy
Wimsatt, Beardsley, New Critics, text, interpretation. Used to refer to what they believe is the erroneous assumption that the interpretation of a literary work can be equated to the author’s stated of implied intentions or private meanings. Claiming such external information to be irrelevant in asserting a text’s meaning, New Critics base interpretation on the text itself.

Formalism
Russian Formalist and New Critics, interpretation of work based solely on text. Used to designate critics who rely on a work’s form or structure to determine its meaning. The term is applied on RFs and NCs, who insist that the interpretation of a work of art must evolve from the work’s structure, not from extrinsic elements such as the author’s life or historical context. Work can be analyzed without external information.

Langue
Saussure, Structuralism, language, structure. To refer to the rules that comprise a language or the structure of the language that is mastered and shared by all its speakers. The mastery of rules and their exceptions for constructing a sentence.

Parole
Saussure, Structuralism, language, speaking. A linguistic term used by Saussure to an individual’s actual speech utterances, as opposed to langue, the rules that comprise a language. An individual can generate countless examples of parole, but all are governed by the language’s structure, its langue.

Synchronic
Saussure, Structuralism, language analysis. A linguistic term introduced by the French Saussure and used to designate a process of language analysis that studies one language at one particular time in its evolution, emphasizing how that language functions, not its historical development through a long expanse of time.

Mimetic
mimetic theory, pre-Saussure, referent, concept, idea, symbolized, symbol. A term used in literary criticism to refer to art as an imitation or copy of various elements of the universe. In linguistics the mimetic theory of language asserts that words are symbols for things in the world, that is, each word has its own referent, or the object, concept, or idea that is represented or symbolized by that word. Accordingly, a word equals its referent.

Work/text
Russian Formalists. To mean a unified collection of various literary devices and conventions that can be objectively analyzed.

Transcendental signified
Derrida, deconstructuralism, non-existent, referent, truth, self. Once found, the transcendental signified would provide the ultimate meaning or truth. It would guarantee a “center” allowing those who believe in it to structure their ideas of reality around it. Derrida claims that it cannot exist.

Sign
Saussure, Structuralism, signified, referent, signifier, mimetic. A linguistics term used to denote the definition for a word. For Saussure, a word represents an abstract concept, not a referent in the objective world or symbol that supposedly equals something else. A word is a sign composed of both a signifier and a signified. “There’s nothing tree-e about the tree!” – Dr. P. Ingram

Binary Oppositions
Derrida, Deconstructuralism, self/other, privileged, trace. Govern our thinking on the principle of either/or. Meaning is derived through this idea of either/or. To accept this is to establish conceptual order. Binary oppositions classify and organize the world. A term used to represent the conceptual oppositions on which Derrida believes Western metaphysics is based, such as light/dark, good/bad, and big/small.

Mytheme
Lévi-Strauss, Structuralism, myths, themes, binary oppositions, trace. Refers to the many recurrent themes running through humankind’s countless myths. These basis structures are similar to the individual sounds of language. Like these sounds, mythemes find meaning in and through their relationships within the mythic structure, not their own individuality. The meaning of any individual myth depends on the interaction and order of the mythemes found within the story.

Différance
Derrida, Deconstructuralism, trace, language, text. An example of the trace. Differer in French means both to differ and to defer. To put the “a” in difference is to make a distinction or an absence visible. It exposes the closure by which language and texts operate. He deliberately coined this word to be ambiguous, taking on both meanings simultaneously. Derrida claims that all meaning or interpretations of a text are undecidable because a text can have innumerable meanings and interpretations.

Logocentrism
Derrida, Deconstructuralism, center, truth, transcendental signified. Refers to Western culture’s proclivity for desiring absolute truths, or what Derrida calls “centers.” The belief that an ultimate reality or center of truth can serve as the basis for all our thoughts and actions.

Teleological
Postcolonial. The study of the evidence of design in the natural world. It denotes a worldview or philosophy of life that asserts a purposeful going forward toward some known end, especially one relating to nature. Achieves an end.

Metaphysics of presence
Derrida, Deconstructuralism, language, metaphysics, method. Used to encompass ideas such as logocentrism, phonocentrism, the operation of binary oppositions, and other notions held in Western thought and culture about the nature of language and metaphysics. Derrida’s objectives are to demonstrate the foundations on which such beliefs have been established and “deconstruct” what Western culture values and to show how it will lead to new interpretations of text.

Supplement
Derrida, deconstructuralism, trace, binary oppositions, hierarchy. Used to explain the relationship between the two parts of any hierarchy upon which Western culture bases its metaphysics. The value of light over dark: the relationship is not totally clean. Supplement is used to refer to the unstable relationship between the two elements in the hierarchy. Not two total entities. One cannot be without the other.

Discourse
Marxism, Postcolonialism, Feminism, trace, mindset, influence, ideology. A way of seeing and thinking about the world. Bounded by ideology, culture, education, politics, and a variety of other influences. Refers not only to speech pattern but also a particular mindset secured by philosophical assumptions that force a person to interpret the world in a particular fashion.

Colonial Capitalism
Postcolonial, self/other, Marxism, oppression. Utilizing their resources and goods for own gain.

Writing/reading as a Woman
Kate Millet, Feminism, Two modes. The first is the act of teaching women to read as men by only allowing male-authors in the canon. Women would understand the masygonistics of men. The second mode is uncovering literature written by women that were pushed aside.

Representation
Structuralism, sign, signifier, signified. Act of using signs to produce knowledge of something. It is the foundation of anything.

Self/Other
Deconstructuralism, Feminism, Postcolonialism, privileged. Self is the center and privileged, representing. It is by what it is not which is the Other/margin, represented.

Trace
Derrida, deconstructuralism, binary opposition, différance. The possibility of the other. Binary oppositions depend on the trace. By acknowledging the existence of one, you are granting the possibility of the other.

Uncanny
Freud, Psychoanalytic, Heimlich, unheimlich, familiarity, castration, Sandman. The return of the repressed. Something forgotten that is not understandably familiar when it returns.

Masquerade
Lacan, Psychoanalysis, Feminism, binary opposition, desire, lack, man, not man, symbolic order. Woman seeks man’s desire. Women want to be desired. It is the way by which we illicit way to be desired.

ISA
Althrusser, Marxism, hegemony, ideology, superstricture, embodiment, social class, coercion, consent suppression. Ensure we act in accordance with specific laws of society. We believe in the naturalness of the system and are unaware of its construction. We are not free, we are subjected. It is the ideological state apparatus, we consent to these ideologies given to us by the family, religion, schools, etc.

Ideology
Marx, Althrusser, ISA, RSA, consent, coercion, hegemony, subscription. For Marx ; “the ruling ideas of the ruling class.” For Althrusser ; process of cultural signification which includes the ISA and RSA. Social consciousness to the culture’s internal awareness of a body of laws or codes governing its politics, law, religion, philosophy, and art to which that culture’s bourgeoisie and its superstructure subscribe.

Castration complex
Freud, Psychoanalitic, Oedipus, Electra, patriarchal, penis envy, castration, phallus, lack, binary opposition. For boys: Oedipus complex 1) Identifies with the mother. 2) notices mother has been castrated and now has a fear of castration. For girls: Electra complex 1) Finds out she has already been castrated. 2) Wants daddy and penis. The patriarchal figure has the phallus and holds the power. Once identified with power, child wants it so leaves mom. Patriarchal figure prevents incest.

Imaginary
Lacan, Psychoanalitic, mirror stage, ideolized, recognition. In this stage there is no distinction between self and Other and there is a kind of idealized identification with the mother. Between birth and six months of age.

Panopticon
Jeremy Bentham, Marxism, coercion, consent, self-surveillance, compliance, ISA, RSA. Prison designed by Jeremy Bentham to create a model of self-surveillance. Idea of being surveyed brings out self-compliance. Bodies will do/consent if they feel they’re being watched.