Individual case study

How is ethical, authentic and morally based leadership demonstrated in the Iberian Centre case study? According to Grace (2006) defines ethical leadership is that ‘knowing your core values and having the courage to live them in all parts of your life in service of the common good. ‘ Calculi suggests the three categories to ethical leadership: intentions, relational and the ends (Psychedelic and Edwards 2014). Intentions are the ethics of leaders themselves (Psychedelic and Edwards, 2014, p. 21). In the case study, the intentions of June are not self-interests, he Centre is for seeking positive changes for the individuals and organizations in the community. As the vision of the Iberian Centre said ‘It IS a social enterprise that was about creating a space that enabled people to explore who they were and how they might be in the world’. Through the intentions of June can know that the ethics of June is altruism. Rational, the way of how June leads the centre is shared.

Base on these intentions, June funded the Iberian Centre for community development by providing training and self-development to the community. Refers to the case, June stated that everyone in the centre has the responsibility to play the role of the leaders to influence others. June wants everyone on the centre can understand the ethics and values of this organization then let others know these. But it was difficult to put her values and ethics into practice in the centre.

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Sometimes, the behavior of members was challenged the fundamental principles of the centre. Every time when it occurred, June held up her ethics as the basis leadership in the centre. The ends, the outcomes of what leader does in the organization. In 2008, the Centre became a community interest company CIO and it was awarded the Social Enterprise Mark which is the approval for Junes leadership style. Junes ethics values are not only in her life, June also put them into practice in her work.

In order to contribute her values through the Centre, June courage to run the Centre under the pressure of financial difficulties which only kept run depends on the legacies from family members. According to Lutheran and Voila (2003) suggested that authentic leadership is ‘a process that draws from both positive psychological capacities and a highly developed organization context, which results in both greater safe-awareness ND self-regulated positive behaviors on the part of leaders and associates, fostering positive self-development” (p. 243).

Other leadership scholars suggests that the modern concept of Authentic leadership is about making ethical decisions (Novice et al. 2006), authentic leaders are genuine and they are their own leaders (Shaming and Lima, 2005). There are four authentic leadership suggest: (1 ) Self-awareness; (2) Internalized moral perspective; (3) Balance processing and (4) Relational transparency. Self-awareness refers to the “personal insights of the leader and the reflection on the one’s core aloes, identity, emotions, motives, goals to grips with who you really are at the deepest level.

When leaders know themselves and have a clear sense of who they are and what they stand for, they have a strong anchor for their decisions and actions” (American University, 2011 In the case, Junes leadership style is based on her deeply personal values (such as authenticity, social justice, service and creativity). Therefore, every time the leadership dilemma occurred between June and the team members, June never stood back her values in leadership.

Internalized moral perspective refers to “a elf-regulatory and self-determinations which individuals use their internal moral standard and values to guide their behavior rather than allow outside pressure to control them’ (American University, 2011). Based on Junes values, authenticity guided June founded the Iberian Centre, in order to carry out her values in all part of her life. Balance processing is ‘an individual’s ability to analyses information objectively and explore other people’s opinions before making a decision’ (American University, 201 1).

Relational transparency refers to ‘communicate openly and being real in relationships with others’ American University, 2011 In this Case, one of the most important personal and organizational values is authenticity. June had genuine carried out her personal value to the Centre and engaged in part of the fundamental leadership. The ethical, moral and authentic based leadership is very difficult to occur in all organizations. Different leaders would have different leadership style. Unethical leaders serve their self-interests through their charisma to power over followers.

Transactional leaders try to change the followers’ attitude and behavior through fostering the moral virtue. Ethical leaders use adhering to serve others through the social constructive way (Robbins et al. , 2014, p. 314). According to Gardner et al. (2005), there are three levels of authentic leadership: “1 . Individual personal authenticity is the level which one know one’s self and acts in accordance with the notion Of self; 2. A leader’s authenticity as a leader; 3. Authentic leadership as a phenomenon in itself. These three levels are hierarchically in order as Gardner et al. (2005) suggest that it is not possible occur authentic leadership without an authentic leader and in order to become an authentic leader must first become an authentic errors (Psychedelic and Edwards, 2014, p. 224). 2. Why might ethical, authentic and morally based leadership be considered effective? How might these forms of leadership be ineffective? According to Calculi (2012) stated that “the distinction between ethics and effectiveness is not always a crisp one. The Senate Majority leader, Senator Treat Lott was announced the racial comments in public. But some of his American African constituents said that as long as Lott can use his power and influence to being jobs and money to the state, regardless his racist belief, they would vote for Lott again. In the other words, as if Lott gets his job done, people do not care about his ethics standards. Therefore, the ethics and effectiveness of leaders is not necessary a clear one (Antiskid 2003).

Calculi (2012) suggests that ‘being ethical is being effective and sometimes being effective is being ethical’. Also, Mendoza and Kananga (2007) also suggested that effective leadership occurs when the behavior of leaders and the leadership influence is constant to ethical and moral values (Psychedelic and Edwards 2014). In the other words, leaders treat their followers equally, y providing accurate and frequent information and honesty, these are seen as more effective (Robbins et al. , 2014, p. 314).

In the case of Ethylene, the manufacturer Johnson & Johnson increased the sales of Ethylene by pulling off the poisoned Ethylene from the shelves. The leaders of Johnson & Johnson were effective with boosting the sales of Ethylene based on their ethical leadership to handle the problem. Calculi (1998) argued that ‘a good leader is an effective and good leaded. But in some circumstances, ethical leadership Can create ineffective because of the traders’ incompetent in terms of their knowledge and skills, ability to identify and solve moral problems (Calculi 2012).

In the case of Swiss charity Christian Solidarity International, it had a moral intention goal to free approximate 200,000 enslaved children in Sudan. The charity was paid from $35 to $75 to free the enslaved children. Such action resulted in creating a market for slavery, the price and demand of slavish children raised up. The ineffective was the charity created more suffering for the slavish children inadvertently.