DCNotes Modules

Communication with groups Communication with the groups or group communication has its won advantages and disadvantages. The major advantages of group communication are I Wide knowledge ii group permit to pool more detailed information and knowledge. Ii Diversity of views ii. Group not only permit more knowledge and information as input, but it can also bring heterogeneity in the decision making process. Iii Acceptance ii. There is increased acceptance of solution is possible. There is support and backing for group decision iv Legitimacy ii, it is mere legitimate than decisions made by a single person.

The Major disadvantages of group communication are: I Time consuming ii pressure (pressure in group to conform to decisions) iii Domination by few iv Ambiguous Responsibility (I. E. , Responsible for any decision taken by a group) v Unproductive (if the meetings are not conducted properly they may not contribute to the organizational purpose) vi Expensive vii Leveling Effect (members lead to confirmedly & compromise) viii Divided responsibility (collective decisions invariably dilute and things out the responsibility) Types of communication with groups Lectures Lectures is a traditional -? method used for training……… Even detailed information about a problem situation and is invited to analyses it in view of finding a proper solution. The participants are given a chance to become of that situation ,formulate the general principles that apply to similar cases and propose a solution to the problem at stake. A good case study presents and authentic situation taken from life and not and imaginary one. The situation evoked is always a problem situation which is in urgent need of a solution To be tackled properly. A case study requires, a certain amount of information and theoretical knowledge regarding the subject.

The discussion f a case study usually follows three main stages :(a) sharing opinions After recording or hearing the case , every participant is given a chance to express his/her opinion. (b)Analyzing the case:- The group members analyses the case more objectively with the help of a few questions (e) Formulating guiding principles:- These guiding principles are meant to understand and solve similar problem situations that may arise in the future. Value of this method (a) Help young people to adopt a more objective approach to problems of life and in the process, to grow. B) It helps the participants to form their omniscience and find solutions that are inspired by faith. (c) It leads the group to expire problem situations with greater objectivity and analyses them more accurately. Thus participants become Of compel…… Of certain issues and learn new ways of approaching them with -? perspectives. Role – Play It is a method of simulating The audience is expected to listen carefully and reflect on the subject and get their doubts clarified from the lecturer either during or towards the end of the lecture.

It has a number of variations and can be used in combination with number of methods and aids. Inspire of being one of the most criticized methods; it is very popular with trainers because of its simplicity and applicability in large groups. Brain-storming It is an innovative and newest method. It is storming out of ideas from the participants. It includes both horizontal and vertical thinking. Horizontal thinking generates new & several solutions, while vertical thinking is rational, sequential and solution -oriented.

Here a small group of persons is give a problem and are asked to produce as many solutions as possible within a given period. The participants are encouraged to put forward unconventional ND non-conformist solutions. The emphasis is on greater use of imagination and innovation. When a large number of suggestions are made, the group is asked to reflect on the various suggestions and evaluate their merits, and demerits. A number of worthwhile solutions can emerge from such a session. Advantages: a It makes people think and brings new ideas b Helps developing and creative solutions. Stimulates maximum participation. D Develops creativity Disadvantages:- a Sometimes members refrain from commenting positively or negatively on a particular issue b Requires considerable skills in part of the leader It favors divergence & hence should not be used unduly. Case Study A case study -? the role in order to understand these situations better. The purpose of role play is not to present a dramatic performance but to re- enact the problem situation as it is divided by the protagonists and purpose a solution to it.

The objectives of role play are:- a To assist the participant to understand objectively the roles that they and others play in actual life. B To increase understanding of the self and others. C To examine personal attitudes, feelings and behavior d To try out new roles e To experiment with new personal behavior To practice dealing with new situations (and to discuss how the participants will respond under certain conditions) Advantages: a Gives confidence to participants and feel the presence of real life situation. Helps to work independently c Useful in strengthening the skills of human interaction d Receive expert advice or criticism and opinion Of other colleagues. Disadvantages: a Without competent ……. May be a waste. B The participants may be inactive or too embossed c It may not have relationship with reality. Demonstration Demonstration can be defined as the effect on the people by bringing the ideas of change to their minds through pictures or movies. When people can see a changed situation existing somewhere else, this will definitely make them accept the new idea.

If those changed situation are in accordance with their lives and aspirations, they will accept the principle. For this purpose, understanding the principles likes and dislikes is very important. Whenever a demonstration Mass Communication and Mass media The following steps should be kept in any communication process:- a Objectives should be limited and specific b Messages should be in small dozes c Use variety of communication channel (Media Mix) ii. Oral communication, Print Media, Electronic Media and traditional & Folk Media. Messages should be repeated (repetition seeps information into their consciousness) e Messages should not only be informative, but it should also help in bringing acute change. [Sender Opinion Leader Receiver] f Everything should be planned in advance, nothing should happen by chance. How to plan the communication process? A Identity the target audiences and build the And social background of these people b Analyze their current level of motivation, attitude, ways beliefs and behavior towards the intended programmer (find out why they ay be averse to it a why they appreciate it) c Analyze the existing services provided and extend of their. Prepare major stages of programmer with time -frame e Evaluation (RACE Research, Action, Communication and Evaluation) Media selection involves various steps like a Media that we are going to use b Collateral support ii pamphlets, leaflets etc, It also events, films, street plays etc. Depending on the target audience. C Promotional supports like Media use with different target groups Effects of media on education Literate and educated people benefit much more from educational media Han the less literate and educated unless the education oriented programmer are specifically geared to the needs, interests and levels of specific groups.

Even before groups and regions can benefit from education through the print or the electronic media, they will need to become ‘media literate’. Media literacy proceeds or is simultaneous with the skill to learn from media. The social structures obtaining at the grassroots need to be taken into account as well as the infrastructure in the form of schools, teachers, volunteers, post-literacy facilities and the cost and communal divides. The time available to agricultural and industrial workers to respond in any meaningful way to literacy drives in media are overlooked.

Mass media and family (Indian Family) The T. V. Cable and satellite invasion of urban India is of great concern to parents and teachers. With so much time given to watching Parents are worried that little Time will remain for conversation in the family or family visits or family get together. However, even the parents spend a lot of time before and exercise no control on what their children watch and when. A lot depends upon what the family members do with the television since few Indian families can afford more that one n. Set, gathering around the TV set is similar to the earlier practice of gathering round a fire place Mass Media and children The children of today comes into contact with groups other than their in schools, through mass media. Beside mass media provide models of behavior and norms of The child begins to imitate them, especially when he/she is least since their activities outside home provide them greater . And other role models Since children do not have any purchasing power, market researchers do not study children as television or radio audience, or as readers.

Except for SITE studies of children’s response to educational programmer, and a few other studies, we have little significant research on children’s use of or interaction with the mass media. Women and Mass media The Josh- committee report observed in 1984 that Doorman’s is dominated by feature films and film based programmer that exploit the female from and debase the -? of womanhood. The major recommendations of the Josh Committee Report included I The improvement of women’s condition, status and image is defined as a major objective of Doorman’s. I The formulation of clear guidelines regarding the positive portrayal foemen on T. V. And a system monitoring the implementation of these guideline iii The redefinition of the image and promotion of the male ‘ideal’ as one who is carrying and willing to share in household, childcare, and contraceptive responsibilities iv The need for orientation courses for all Doorman’s makers, programming and production staff so that they are sensitizes to social issues with particular references to women’s issues. V The careful scrutiny of all advertisements by a special committee. I The involvement of Manila Mandalay in the installation of community TV sets and in community viewing arrangements in rural areas. An analysis of Women’s magazines and two general -employment particularly in higher status occupation Media and Consumerism TO most advertisers, people are not customers or even people but mere consumers. It is not without significance that we are urged to by and to consume wherever we are and whenever we switch on T. V. Cable or satellite TN. Radio, newspaper and magazines.

It is not only advertising that directly promotes consumption beyond one’s means, but also sponsored programmer and columns and supplements. It is true that both manufacturing and service industries in developed economics spend more on advertising and media relations than those in developing economics. But in the past decade, growth in advertising expenditure in Asian countries has been steadily rising where as it has been reduced in the U. S. And other western countries. Violence in Media Exposure to violence constantly and on a daily basis can detesting us to violence in real life.

Further, we might be convinced that violence is a part of society. It might lead us to believe that some groups (for instance, trials, and leftist) are naturally violent and such stereotypes might endure. Violence in the news and in strips is rarely talked about. While the portrayal of lenience in the press and broad cast media is condoned because it is the caricatures of violent fights and clashed between heroes and villains are condoned because they are presented in a light and humorous manner.

There has been hardly any study in India or elsewhere in Asia about the influence of such violent portrayals on society. Module – IV Exhibitions- How to organize An exhibition is a means of communication aiming at large groups of the public with the purpose of conveying information ideas and emotions relating to the material evidence of man and his surrounding with the aid of chiefly visual and dimensional methods. Kinds of exhibitions 1 Permanent exhibitions:- An exhibition extended in time for more than three years is usually considered a long term or permanent exhibition. Temporary Exhibitions:- They are organized for short term exposure six months 3 Didactic Ex. options:- This type of exhibition tries biological aspect of species or folk culture of a region. 4 Reconstruction exhibitions:- This type of exhibition reconstructs a scene in relation to some of its objects with the help of models graphics and audio visual aids. Exhibition Techniques:- Carpet Area:- It means covered area of each room from wall to wall in a alluding.

Carpet area is divided into (a) Distributional space (corridors and galleries) (d) Collecting space (auditoriums and classrooms) (c) Transitional space (entrance and vestibules) Exhibition Fabrication:- use of supporting materials for presenting objects like furniture, lighting and other equipments etc. Eye level display:- Visitors should be able to observe the exhibitor comfortably when objects and graphics are -? . On all sides and illuminated Barriers:- Barriers like fencing, railings, glass or plastic plate etc is provided for safe guarding the objects from visitors.

Way finders:- Provide erection and information so that the visitors can have no experiences as feeling lost. Cinema, Television and Radio Cinema – History of India The first cinematographic exhibitions of the .. Brothers were held in Bombay on July 7th 1896. The exhibitions included living photographic pictures in life sized reproductions of the arrival of a train, of workers leaving a factory, of a sea-bath and of ladies and soldiers on wheels. A British cinematographer held exhibitions of a similar kind in Calcutta. A photographer named Hans Chancre S.

Featherbed, who was inspired by the screenings of at Bombay ordered for a moving picture camera from London. And when it arrived India, it took along to a wrestling match, and shot the match live and named it ‘Two Wrestlers’. Another one short by Bathwater was ‘A Man and the Monkey’ Bathwater was the ‘Father of Indian Factual Film’. However, the first Indian short films were ‘Coconut Fair and ‘Our Indian Empire’ both made and exhibited in 1897 by unknown English camera persons on 18th May 1 912, R. A Marital stage play, Punctual, while it was being acted out G. Rooney Tourneys screen version gave India its first feature film, though some film historians, like to credit deadheads Phallus’s ‘Rajah Harpsichord’ which was add a full year later, with being Indian cinema’s first feature Phallus’s ‘Rajah Harpsichord’ was the first silent feature film in India, Philae was inspired to do this, when he saw the other film ‘Life of Christ’ at a Christmas cinema show. His other films were Saviors, Lankan Dana, Krishna Ganja etc. During that time women were unwilling to act in films and hence the woman role in.. Phallus’s film was done by A Salute, A restaurant cook.

When Philae took religious movies. D. G. Gangly of Calcutta made satirical comedic like England Returned and Barrister’s. Wife Channeled Shah of Bombay made films like Typist Girl & Gun Sundaes. Humans Aria , sponsored by Germans, made brilliant films like The Light of Asia, Shirrs, A throw of Deice Karma etc, which brought to screen the first woman actress ‘Device Rain’ In South India at the same tome, the film industry flourished under R. Modular a businesses man Mind 1 917 made six silent films all based on mythological characters from the epics, Cheesecake Veda DARPA etc. Al these films from 1896-1930 were silent movies and hence the period was called the ‘Silent era’. This was followed by ‘Talkies Era’. The talkies era was set in motion by ‘The melody of Love’ (dialogue was translated in 2 or 3 Indian languages). The first Indian talkie was Lam Era (1 931), directed by Radishes Iran. If had 7 songs ‘Indri Saba’, which was released the following year had 70 songs. In Bombay, V Samaritan and three others set up the Pratt Film company led by animus Aura, the Bombay Talkies (est.. In 1935)flourished as much as Paragraph. B. H Wad and his brothers Homo, est..

Wad Movie Calcutta, New Theatre company, under the Of B. N. And By 1970 optical fiber cable & computer technology come into being Video tape recorder, Cable T V. , Pay TV, HTH (Direct to Home) TV have changed the course of development of TV. History of TV in India Ministry Of Information and Broadcasting played a major role in introducing TV In 1959, Philips (India) made an offered t o the gobo. Of a transmitter at reduced cost. Following this UNESCO, gave a grant of $20,000 for purchase of community receivers and U. S. Offered few other types of equipment. On Swept. 5, 1959 Delhi TV can be went on -? (Range of transmitter forty km in and around about Delhi) 1965, entertainment and information programmer were introduced. The Federal Republic of Germany helped in setting a TV’ production on studio. By 1970, duration of programmer was increased. By 1 972, Bombay centre was opened. By 1 975, were opened in Calcutta, medias and Locknut. From Jan 1 1976, commercials came to be telecast at all above centers. In the some years, TV was separated from AIR. TV now came under nevus banner ‘Doorman’s’. Asian Games held in New Delhi in 1982 expanded the national TV neuron.

By mid 1980, a second channel was introduced in New Delhi and Bombay and later in all metro’s. This new channel was AD-2. India, the major film making company was under K. Subterranean, who made films in Tamil, Deluge and Mammal. Entry of ‘Essayist Ray/ by 1 954 was a major break through in Indian alms. His films like Father Penchant, Parathion etc made world The fifteens and sixteen was ‘Golden Age of Indian film with great people like hard Mood, Raja Kapok and Duet. Two great money spinners ii. V. Shamanism’s Johanna Johanna, Papal Baja’ and Mobbed Khan’s Mother India’ came during this period.

The est.. Of FCC (Film Finance Corporation) raised the expectations of serious film maker by 1 962, low budget ventures by young film makers too began to be granted loans. Later came NEED (National Film Development.. Corp.. ) which enhanced commercial movies. The new scheme where the film Akers can obtain loans from nationalized And insure their products and personnel with national insurance companies is a major blessing. Television Early expects. In TV Experiments in TV broadcasting was initiated in sass’s In 1 923, came the invention of concessions, the electric TV tube.

In sass’s the NBC (National Broadcasting Corp.. ) was set up in Newark and BBC in London, Germany and France too est.. TV stations at the same time. World war put further developments Top event in the German TV history was 1936 Olympics in Berlin by late 1 ass’s and early 1 ass’s. TV had become a feature of life in developed countries. In 1962, launched. In 1965 and 1971 -? Medium 1st communication satellite was Radio -? Development of Radio as a It took 10 yr for a wireless telegraphy to become a broadcasting system. 1st world war prompted industrialization of wireless telegraphy.

Secondly, in us, radio created a common system. The 1st radio station was set up in Pittsburgh, New York and Chicago in sass’s. By 1923, 450 stations sprouted in US. In 1 926, they together formed NBC – National Broadcasting Company. Many independent stations clubbed together and formed CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System), BBC etc. In Britain and Europe, broadcasting was left to private companies. Colonial powers like Britain & France opened broadcasting stations in Asia and Africa. Indian Broadcasting Broadcasting in India was introduced by amateur radio clubs.

First license was granted for transmission in Feb.. 23, 1977 Radio club of Calcutta was the 1 SST amateur radio club to start functioning Financial difficulties forced the clubs to come together in 1 927 to form BBC (Indian Broadcasting Company) The gobo. Run broadcasting set up was called the Indian State Broad Casting Service (SIBS) with Fielded its first controller. SIBS was then under dept. Of Industries and Labor SIBS was turned into AIR in June 1936. AIR was transferred to the Dept. Of Information and Broadcasting in 1 946 (and it remained with that until Swept. 997, when the Parkas Bahrain came into being) In Cot. 1 957, introduction of Vivid Breath (a commercial channel) increased the interests and popularity of radio. Havana or voice of youth went on air on July 23, 1969 New Delhi. Launch of Sky radio channel on April, 1 994, enabled subscribers to receive 20 radio channels and satellite on web Information Technology and World Wide The concept of ‘information society’ gained widespread currency in the sass’s and 1 ass’s to explain the social, economic and technological changes.

The social change includes the entry of entertainment media and computer in the home, and the growth of telecommuting, and the factory or office were breaking down. The main work telecommuters did was gathering, processing and storing information with the help of personal computers. The innovations in information and communication technologies brought about by the integration of telecommunications, mass media & computing promised -? Flexibility greater efficiency and lower costs.

The ‘Information Super Highway’ can be defined as an ‘information and communication technology network, which delivers all kinds of electronic services – audio, video, test and data to households and business. Seen. ‘ices on the super highway can be one to one, one to many or many to many. The egg. Of the ‘Information Super highway’ is the internet. Which had its roots in the need during mid sass’s for linking military computer researches in the U. S. The World Wide Web was developed at the European Centre for particle Research in 1 989, but took off only in place on the web, but the number of commercial sites out numbered education, gobo. ND organization domains. Globalization are yet another yep term in Information Technology. It assumes that the phenomenon’s of the industries are world wide, that users of information technology make up the majority of the world’s population with no. Obstacles to access inverter. But by no means -? Electronic Commerce involves the production, advertising and distribution of production via telecommunication networks. It includes internet and extranets, E-commerce via the internet has already made into traditional business and trade at both local and global levels.

Characteristics of Television 1 Flexibility (it is elastic and adaptable to various situations and flexible to mime, market and copy) 2 Family Medium (All the members of the family can watch it together) 3 Just watching (The reader have to put little effort on reading understanding the message – the problem of literacy is also overcome) 4 Evaluation (it permits to evaluate audience and audience data with help of evaluation technique) 5 Entertainment and information 6 Sound, action and sight (combination of sound, sight and action and has power to influence greatly to attract their interest and attention.