Chapter 5 – Classical Greece

Polis
City-state; the basic unit of Greek society was the city-state, in Greek called_____
– Each developed its own form of government, laws, and customs
– Surrounding the entire polis was a strong wall for defense
– A typical ____ was built around a high area called an acropolis
– Athens was probably the most famous Greek ______ because it was the birthplace of democracy

Acropolis
A walled, high area containing fortifications, temples to the gods, and spaces for public ceremonies and located in the center of a polis
– Below this were other public places, like the agora

Agora
Marketplace; was often the center of life in a Greek town

Helots
State slaves

– Once the Spartans had conquered a town, they made the Messenians into ________
– __________ were given to Spartan citizens to work on farms so that the citizens did not have to perform manual labor. As a result, Spartan citizens were free to spend all their time training for war

Hoplites
Foot soldiers
– Spartan boys at age 20 were sent to be this. They remained in the army for 10 years, after which time they were allowed to leave and take their place as citizens

Hubris
Great pride; brought many heroes to tragic ends
– Their deaths served as lessons to the Greeks

The Minoans
– Developing on the island of Crete
– Their ships sailed all over the sea
– Usually peaceful
– Made many achievements (mentioned later)
– Caste system (Not sure if you need to know social classes – waiting for Mrs. Guthrie to reply to email)
1. Nobles
2. Merchants
3. Artisans
4. Bureaucrats
5. Laborers
– Invented double-headed axe (labys)
-Became known as Labyrinth (which means home of labys)
Buildings were solidly constructed with many private rooms, basic plumbing, and brightly colored artwork on the walls This artwork has helped historians learn about the Minoan way of life.
– Two types of language
1. Linear A (can’t read)
2. Linear B (early form of Greek)
– Matriarchal society (meaning women played a major roles in society) – People have found painting of women priests from here
– Religion: center of worship was a mother goddess along with a bull – Earth goddess portrayed in various forms
– Art – Bull was significant – males painted red – females painted in white – Historians learn many things about the Minoans from their art because we cannot read their written language
– Trade was big
– It declined when something maybe like a volcanic eruption or other natural disaster happened
– Culture was weakened by Mycenean attacks and influences
– Cultural beliefs and Influences: Crete traditionally the place where Zues was born – They worshipped Zues, and in their culture he eventually died- Greeks were later incensed that Minoans belied that Zues died
– Greece eventually dominated the area, Minoan beliefs
– *Palace Knossos* was a big place, it had: Storage, plumbing, no protecting walls, and AC (running water under floors)
– The sea was a big part of their culture

The Mycenaeans
Conquered the Minoans. They took many things from them by copying them. Like how they copied their writing while trading to develop their own system (but we can read theirs). Like the Minoans, they became great traders. Their trade increased when they conquered Crete (Minoans). They built small kingdoms that often fought with each other. It was named after a fortress they built called Mycenae. Warlike. *The Lion Gate* is the most well known monument from here. These lions heads were used to scare away and intimidate visitors. They *try to conquer Troy* (use Trojan horse). This battle played a part in the end of this civilization along with, droughts and famines, invasion from outside, and the end of trade. The war between the _______ cities sped up their downfall.
MOST IMPORTANT:
– Frequent warfare (between themselves)
– Intense competition
– Powerful kings
– Trojan war (trojan horse) – Troy (Don’t know if this really happened but it played a part in the end of this civilization)
– Great trade
– The Lion Gate (important monument)

Sparta
– One of the mightiest city-states in Greece
– Extremely warlike and conquered many places (once they conquered a place, they would keep the people as slaves {helots} which enabled them to spend all their time training for war) – their emphasis on war was not because of fondness for fighting, but because it was the only way to keep order in society since helots outnumbered citizens
– Demanded strength and toughness from birth
– Boys were trained then at age 20 became hoplites (foot soldiers) and after 10 years of doing that they were allowed to leave.
– Women had more freedom, like the right to own property. They did things like gymnastics because to have a strong baby, women needed to be strong
– Led by two kings who served as military commanders. Over time, decision making fell more to an elected council of elders

Gods and Heros / Legends and Myths
In addition to archeological evidence, much of what we know or suspect about early Greece comes from studying their ______

What was life like in a typical polis?
It was the center of daily life and culture for the ancient Greeks. Each polis developed independently of its neighbors because communication between city-states was difficult since Greece was so rugged. Each polis developed its own form of government, laws, and customs. Because it was so central to their lives, Greeks were fiercely loyal to their polis. A typical polis was built around a high area called an acropolis. There was an agora (market place) below the acropolis. In quieter parts of the polis, you might find a gymnasium, a training ground, and a public bath for athletes. Surrounding the entire polis was a sturdy wall for defense.

What achievements did the Minoans make?
They invented basic plumbing, AC (running water under floors), below ground storage, and a double-headed axe (labys)

How did Greece’s rugged geography affect the development of city-states?
Each major polis had a different political system that developed over time. Like Athens, the “birthplace of democracy”. Each polis developed independently of its neighbors because communication between city-states was difficult since Greece was so rugged. Each polis developed its own form of government, laws, and customs. Because it was so central to their lives, Greeks were fiercely loyal to their polis.

Athens
– Birthplace of democracy
– In its early history, this place was ruled by kings, later, they were replaced by aristocrats who had both money and power
– The gap between rich and poor (most people here were poor) eventually led to conflict – to help resolve this conflict:
1) Draco
2) Solon
3) Pisistratus
4) Pisistratus
5) Cleisthenes
– “ruled by the people”
– Trade was encouraged to earn money

Democracy
– Athens was the birthplace of democracy (the prosperity in Athens was due to this stable and effective government (500 BC)
– Under the democracy, Athens entered its classical age, a period of its great achievements and triumphs
– The gap between rich and poor (most people here were poor) eventually led to conflict – to help resolve this conflict, an official named DRACO reformed the cities laws and thought the only way to end unrest was through harsh punishment, but this did not resolve the dispute between classes – another lawmaker, SOLON, revised laws, got rid of Draco’s harshest laws, and tried to reduce poverty by encouraging trade….. his ***most significant*** change was in the government- **He allowed all men in Athens to take part in the assembly that governed the city and to serve on juries that heard trials, but only wealthy men could run or hold political office- this was the first real step toward democracy in Athens** his new laws relieved some of the tension in athens but not all – PISISTRATUS was a tyrant… pushed aristocrats out of office and increased trade to make Athenians richer – CLEISTHENES: *his reforms set the stage for democracy* … split Athens into 10 tribes by where people lived and made this the basis for elections
– Only free male Athenians over the age of 20 who had completed military training could vote – These people had to
1. Vote in all elections
2. Serve in office if elected
3. Serve on juries
5. Serve in military during war
– Assembly
– Council of 500
– Complex series of courts
—–Elected officials
1. Archon: Chief of state in Athens

Solon
He allowed all men in Athens to take part in the assembly that governed the city and to serve on juries that heard trials, but only wealthy men could run or hold political office; this was the first real step toward democracy in Athens; his laws relieved some tension in Athens but not all of it

Tyrant
A strongman who seized power by force and claimed to rule for the good of the people
– Example: Pisistratus

Cleisthenes
His reforms set the stage for democracy; divided Athens into 10 tribes by where people lived, making them the basis for elections

Direct democracy
All people vote directly on an issue

Archon
Chief of state in Athens; head of assembly and council of 500; 1 year term

The Persian Wars
– Athens and the rest of Greece was plunged into war
– Greek city-states came into conflict with the vast Persian Empire, bringing Greece into war with a much larger and stronger opponent
– Causes:
1. Wealthy Ionian city-states belonged to Greece but then they had fallen under Persian rule – the Greeks of Ionia then rebelled… asked fellow Greeks for help … despite this assistance, the Persians put down the revolt. The revolt made emperor DARIUS angry enough to seek revenge… he punished by attacking the Greek mainland
– ***The Greeks won the war in the end ***

Darius
Persian emperor; got angry when the Greek Ionians rebelled so he “punished” Greece by attacking the mainlands… contributed to the start of the Persian war… died before he could launch second Persian War invasion into Greece

Phalanx
A tight rectangle formation in which soldiers held long spears out ahead of a wall of shields; Athenians did this as they charged the beach during the Persian War

The Golden Age of Athens
As leaders of the Persian wars, Athens and Sparta became the two most powerful and influential city-states in Greece. Because Sparta was not very popular with the other city-states, Athens became leading city-state and entered a Golden Age. City-states banded together to defend one another …. The was the DELIAN LEAGUE; the rebuilding of Athens; Age of Pericles

Delian League
Alliance; city-states banded together to protect one another; called this because treasury was kept on Island of Delos

Pericles
The rebuilding of Athens was due to him; skilled politician and public speaker; elected one of the cities generals; most influential politician in Athens for many years; great champion of democracy; he commissioned the building of the PARTHENON and several other monuments on the Acropolis.

Acropolis #2
– Parthenon is on it
– Marketplace was on it
– Save because of hill
– Main temple complex in Athens – and Greece
– Built by Pericles; “Golden Age of Athens”

The Peloponnesian War
Because Athens was the most powerful polis (leader of the Delian League), it brought the city many powerful rivals (like Sparta)
– Sparta was the head of the Peloponnesian League of allied city-states- The leagues feared each others militaries, which finally led them to the ________
-In the middle of the war, Athens and Sparta agreed on a truce, but it did not last
– The Spartans destroyed the Athenian fleet, ****leaving Athens no choice but to surrender****
– Sparta’s wealth and recourses were badly strained, which meant that they could not keep control of Greece
– More info about causes from notes:
1. Many Greeks outside of Athens resented Athenian domination
2. Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League to rival the Delian League
3. Sparta and Athens rivaling for supremacy

What were two traits that marked the Golden Age in Athens?
Athens being the head of the Delian League and the rebuilding of Athens

What lead to the outbreak of the Persian Wars?
1. Wealthy Ionian city-states belonged to Greece but then they had fallen under Persian rule – the Greeks of Ionia then rebelled… asked fellow Greeks for help … despite this assistance, the Persians put down the revolt. The revolt made emperor DARIUS angry enough to seek revenge… he punished by attacking the Greek mainland

Do you think the Athenian system of government was superior or inferior to the Spartan system? Support your answer.
Athenian because it was a democracy which made people happier and so they wouldn’t try to revolt. Spartan people were constantly training so that the helots couldn’t revolt (constantly living in fear)

Socrates
Greek philosopher; First great Athenian philosopher
– Sought truths about broad concepts such as truth, justice, and virtue
– Thought people could learn best by asking questions

Plato
Greek philosopher; one of Socrates’s students; recorded many things in writing; believed that every material object reflected the perfect ideal

Aristotle
Greek philosopher; pioneered the use of reason and logic to study the natural world; the practice of rational logic; *emphasis on reason and logic*

Reason
Means clear and ordered thinking; Aristotle emphasized this and logic

Logic
The process of making inferences; Aristotle emphasized this and reason

Greek Literature
Poetry was big (epics and other forms)
– The most famous epics were the Iliad and the Odyssey both by HOMER

Homer
Wrote the Iliad and Odyssey; famous Greek poet

Hesiod
Poet; wrote descriptive poetry

Lyric Poetry
Greeks created this; named after the musical instrument called the lyre; don’t tell stories, instead deal with emotions and desires

Sappho
One of the few Greek women to gain fame as a writer; wrote lyrics

Pindar
Wrote poetry about the Olympic games

History Writing
Greeks were among the first to write about and analyze their own past

Herodotus
Major writer of history in Greece; wrote “the Histories”

Thucydides
History writer

Drama
Greeks wrote many of these for entertainment; were often based on popular myths and legends

Architecture
Athenians wanted their city to be the most beautiful in all of Athens

What was the main goal of classical Greek art?
For the Greeks to express their love of visual beauty; reflect concern, balance, order and beauty;harmony and idealism; they were different views on what happened in greek life

How did the basic philosophy of Aristotle differ from that of Socrates and Plato?
-Didn’t agree with teacher (Plato)
-Knowledge should be gained from senses
-Influence in Western European culture
-Believed woman were “infertile men…” and inadequate
-Supports family and personal property
-Government featuring 3 social classes
-Favored a single, strong ruler
-Able leaders that have a respect for the law
-Responsibilities of citizens to their government
-Wrote “Politics”
-Supports family and personal property
-Government with social classes
-Liked monarchy
-Able leaders that respect the law
-Citizens have responsibility to their government

In which field of literature do you think the Greeks had the most significant effect? Why?
Drama, because the famous philosopher Aristotle wrote the 6 elements of drama, the definition of tragedy, and the unities of drama.

Macedonia
A kingdom located just north of Greece
– The __________ rise to power was led by a king named Philip II and his son ALEXANDER THE GREAT
– King Philip’s first actions were organizing the _____ army. He adopted the Phalanx system used by other Greeks, but he gave his soldiers longer spears
– King Philip set out to conquer Greece, (*Loves Greece and wants to unify it*) but after just getting started, he was assassinated. His title and plans for conquest were left to Alexander

Alexander the Great
– His father began to conquer Greece but was assassinated, leaving the title and plans to him
– 20 years old when he became king; trained to rule since birth
– He was immediately faced with revolts in Greece so he set out to reestablish his control there
– With Greece firmly under his control, he decided to **build himself an empire**
– His soldiers were well trained and fiercely loyal to him
– Defeated DARIUS
– ______ was essentially master of the Persian world
– He conquered many many places, naming them mostly Alexandria (except for at least one that he named after his horse
– **Conquers Mediterranean Sea are and Egypt**
– In Egypt they declare his pharaoh (which means they consider him a god)
– He died without naming an heir and his generals began to fight among themselves for power
– In the end, the empire was divided among three of the most powerful generals, who began to call themselves kings
1. Antigonus became king of Macedonia and Greece
2. Seleucus took over the Persian Empire
3. Ptolemy ruled Egypt

Hellenistic World
By bringing together a number of diverse peoples in him empire, Alexander helped create a new type of culture. It blended together elements of Greek civilization with ideas from Persia, Egypt, Central Asia, and other regions. This blending was no accident though. After this “hellenistic” blending, many changes happened — including that the city-state was no longer the main political unit of the Greek world, now replaced by the kingdom. Democracy had given away to monarchy. The lives of women also changed — women gained rights to have an education and etc..

Hellenistic
Greek-like
– Ever since the Alexander Empire, all different cultures had been blended so the “Greece” civilization was no longer purely Greek to people refer/referred to it as _______

Zeno (not sure if important)
Founded Stoicism, which urged people to accept calmly whatever life brought (not sure if important)

Pythagoras (not sure if important)
Derived a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a triangle (not sure if important)

Euclid (not sure if important)
Wrote The Elements, a textbook that became the basis for modern geometry (not sure if important)

Aristarchus (not sure if important)
Theorized about a heliocentric, or sun- centered, solar system (not sure if important)

Eratosthenes (not sure if important)
Showed that the Earth was round and accurately calculated its circumference (not sure if important)

Archimedes (not sure if important)
Used principles of physics to makes practical inventions, such as the lever and pulley (he screamed “eureka!”) (not sure if important)

Hippocrates (not sure if important)
Studied illnesses and cures and set ethical standards for medical care (not sure if important)

Ancient Greece Geography
– Has a Mediterranean climate
– Winters are mild and wet (limited farming – grapes and olives)
– Summers warm and dry (leads to drought – grapes and olives one of few plants that can survive drought
– 75% covered by mountains (means difficult to farm)
– Surrounded by seas
– Located on the Balkan Peninsula (made trade easier)
– Culture:
1. Isolated – led to the formation of city-states – limited interaction and unity of Greece – created fierce rivalries
2. Sea became vital link – traded – skilled sailors