British Literature: Restoration/18th century

1660
Charles II is restored to the English Throne, beginning the Restoration Period (ending of commonwealth)-establishes royal society

Royal Society
Charles II’s club for intellectuals, indicative of his love for science and the development for knowledge

1689
The Glorious Revolution: deposition of James II; William of Orange reigns

Who reigns in the restoration?
Charles II, James II, William of Orange, George

1707
Act of Union unites Scotland/England into Great Britain

Who reigns in the 18th century?
George I, II, III

What is another name commonly given to the 18th century?
The Age of Reason; Age of the Enlightenment

18th century literary themes
reason > passion, forbidden knowledge, deism, rebirth, satire, individualism, skepticism

restoration literature
Paradise Lost, The Pilgrim’s Progress, Dryden Poems, Oroonoko

18th century literature
Rasselas, Gulliver’s Travels, “Rape of the Lock”

restoration/18th century authors
Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, John Dryden, John Bunyan, Aphra Behn, SAMUEL JOHNSON, James Boswell, Daniel Defoe, Sir Isaac Newton, Henry Fielding, Lawrence Stern, Addison & Steele

18th century literary style
rise of the novel and the editorial journal

3 styles of novels in the 18th century
epistolary (letters), gothic romance, picaresque (rogue hero in a corrupt society)

What does Swift satirize in Gulliver’s Travels?
Part 1: Lilliput and Blefescu; Foreign relations and English government
Part 2: Brobidingnagians: Foreign relations, response to part 1 and English society
Part 3: Floating city of Laputa; Royal Era and speculative world
Part 4: Houyhnhnms and the Yahoos; commentary on human herd mentality

Heroi-comical
The blending of heroic and comical elements

Rape of the Lock
Epic poem by Alexander Pope that satirizes the lives of English royalty, following Belinda and a Sylph until the dreaded denouement: she loses a piece of hair.

Belinda
Main character of “Rape of The Lock” who wakes up at noon every day and overreacts to losing her hair

Ombre
Card game played by Belinda and the Baron at Hampton Court

Clarissa
Bystander who makes feminist speech after she sees Belinda’s hair cut

Where does Belinda’s lock go?
To the heavens

Umbriel
earth gnome who returns to Hampton Court with a bundle of sighs and tears so that Belinda reacts dramatically

Ariel
Belinda’s guardian Sylph in Rape of the Lock

Deism
school of religion that believes in the existence of a supreme being, specifically of a creator who does not intervene in the universe. critical of organized religion. included members such as Paine, Jefferson, Voltaire, Pope, et al.

Poetic structure of the 18th century
heroic couplets

What is special about the early novel Oroonoko?
First novel about slavery