British Literature 2 – Exam #1

Anne Radcliffe
Romantic Era, famous for pioneering the romance genre.
Famous books: The Romance of the Forest, The Mysteries of Udolpho, and The Italian.
Influenced Edgar Allen Poe, Jane Austen, Sir Walter Scott.

Anne Brontë
Victorian Era.
Famous books: Tenant of Wildfell Hall, Agnes Grey, and co-author of Poems by Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell (her and her sister’s fake names).

Charlotte Brontë
Sisters: Anne and Emily Brontë.
Victorian Era, dominant trends set for the Victorian Era.
Famous books: Jane Eyre, Shirley, Villete, and The Professor.

Emily Brontë
Victorian Era.
Created a fictional world written in the form of poems with her sister Anne. These were later published by their oldest sister Charlotte.
Famous book: Wuthering Heights. Died young from tuberculosis so it was her only novel.
Most romantic of the Brontë sisters.

Horace Walpole
Neoclassical/Enlightenment Period
Famous works: The Castle of Otranto (most famous), Hieroglyphics Tales, On Modern Gardening, 3,000 letters.
Served on Parliament for 6 years, possibly homosexual, started a printing press, wrote the first gothic novel.

Thomas Carlyle
Victorian Era.
University of Edinburgh, satirical/historical writer.
Famous works: Sartor Resartus, The French Revolution, Past and Present.
Trilogy: On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and Heroic in History.
After his wife died, spent time mourning her until he died himself.

Lewis Carroll
Was his pen name, his real name was Charles Lutwidge Dodgson.
Victorian Era.
Famous works: Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, Through the Looking-Glass, Silvie and Bruno, Jabberwocky, and The Hunting of the Snark.
Famous for his word play, logic, and fantasy.

Mary Elizabeth Coldridge
Victorian Era.
Wrote under the pseudonym “Anodos”.
Famous works: The Other Side of a Mirror, The Witch.

Charles Lamb
Romantic Era.
Famous works: Essays of Elia and Tales from Shakespeare.
Friends/wrote with Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth.
Wordsworth wrote a poem about him.

Joseph Conrad (Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski)
Victorian Era.
Considered one of the greatest novelists in English, though he didn’t speak fluently until age 20 (He’s Russian).
Had anti-heroic characters.
Famous Works: Heart of Darkness (Most famous), Almayer’s Folly, An Outcast of the Islands, The Secret Agent, The Shadow Line.

Robert Louis Stevenson
Victorian Era.
Among the 26 most translated authors in the world. Was an influence on Ernest Hemingway and Jack London.
Famous Works: Treasure Island, Kidnapped, Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.

Bram Stoker
Victorian Era.
Better known as the assistant to actor Henry Irving and business manager of Lyceum Theatre in London, which Irving owned.
Famous Work: Dracula (Gothic novel).

Gerard Manley Hopkins
Victorian Era.
Jesuit priest, Roman Catholic convert.
Famous Work: God’s Grandeur, The Wreck of the Deutschland.

Anna Letitia Barbauld
Romantic Era.
Published works in multiple genres.
Famous Works: The Mouse’s Petition, A Summer Evening’s Meditation, The Right’s of Women.

Charlotte Smith
Romantic Era.
Started a revival in the writing of English sonnets.
Famous Work: Elegaic Sonnets, The Old Manner House, The Swallow, Beachy Head.

William Blake
Romantic Era.
Painter, poet, and print maker. Challenged religion in many of his works.
Famous Works: The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, All Religions are One, The Book of Thel, Songs of Innocence and Experience.

Mary Wollstonecraft
Romantic Era.
Writer, philosopher, and advocate of women’s rights.
Famous Works: A Vindication of the Rights of Women, Letters Written during a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark.

William Wordsworth
Romantic Era.
Helped launch the Romantic Era.
Famous Works: Lyrical Ballads, The Prelude, Resolution and Independence, Ode: Immitations and Immortality.

Dorothy Wordsworth
Romantic Era.
Sister of William Wordsworth.
Famous Works: Thoughts on My Sick Bed, Gasmere, Alfoxden.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Romantic Era.
Helped launch the Romantic Era.
Famous Works: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Kubla Khan, Biographia Literaria.

George Gordon/Lord Byron
Romantic Era.
Commonly known as simply, Lord Byron. A leading figure in the Romantic movement for his anti-heroic characters.
Famous Works: Don Juan, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, She Walks in Beauty.

Percy Bysshe Shelley
Romantic Era.
Married to Mary Shelley. Inspired Karl Marx and Upton Sinclair.
Famous Works: Ozymandias, Ode to the West Wind, The Cloud, The Masque of Anarchy.

Jane Austen
Romantic Era.
Writing style is romantic fiction. Most widely read writers in English literature.
Famous Work: Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility, Emma, Mansfield Park.

Felicia Dorothea Hemans
Romantic Era.
Appeared in nineteen different books in her lifetime.
Famous Works: England’s Dead, Casabianca, Indian Women’s Death Song.

John Keats
Romantic Era.
Main figures in the second generation of Romantic poets despite his work only being in publication for four years before his death.
Famous Works: Bright Star Would I Were Steadfast as Thou Art, Sonnet to Sleep, The Homer, The Eve of St. Agnes.

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
Romantic Era.
Daughter of Mary Wollstonecraft and wife of Percy Bysshe Shelley.
Famous Works: The Last Man, The Mortal Immortal.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Victorian Era.
One of the most prominent poets of the Victorian Era. Her poetry was popular in both Britain and the United States.
Famous Works: The Cry of the Children, Sonnets from the Portuguese, Mother and Poet, The George Sand.

Alfred/Lord Tennyson
Victorian Era.
Very popular poet for most of Queen Victoria’s reign and still remains one of Britain’s most popular poets.
Famous Works: The Lady of Shallot, Ulysses, The Princess, Idylls of the King, The Epic.

Elizabeth Gaskell
Victorian Era.
Wrote novels and short stories based on her detailed portraits of the many different classes of society, often the poor.
Famous Works: The Life of Charlotte Brontë, The Old Nurse’s Story, The Haunted House.

George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans)
Victorian Era.
Actual name was Mary Ann Evans and wrote under a pen name. Novelist, journalist, and translator.
Famous Works: Silly Novels by Lady Novelists – Margaret Fuller and Mary Wollstonecraft, Adam Bede, The Mill on the Floss.

Robert Browning
Victorian Era.
English poet and playwright. Famous for his dark humor.
Famous Works: Porphyria’s Lover, Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister, The Lost Leader.

Matthew Arnold
Victorian Era.
English poet and cultural critic. Son of Thomas Arnold. Famous sage writer, makes readers aware of contemporary social issues.
Famous Works: The Buried Life, The Scholar Gypsy, Dover Beach.

Romantic Era
appx. 1785-1830
The Period just after Enlightenment.
Royal Rule: King George III (1760-1820), King George IV (1820-1837), King William IV (1830-1837)

Societal issues:
England changes from Agriculture to Industrial society. A time of Economic and Social change.
More and more middle class. Wealthy were scared to lose their social standing due to the social change.
New pressure on women, but also new opportunities.

Famous Authors: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Goerge Gordon Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Wollestonecraft Shelley, John Keats, William Blake.

Characteristics of Literature:
Byronic Hero – the anti hero/dark qualities, rebellion and revolution, imagination and emotion, love of nature, “gothic”, human rights.

Victorian Era
appx. 1837-1901
“Age of Transition” – Self Definition
Best and Worst of Times…
Britain gained so much power. 1890 – 1 in 4 people under British rule.

Royal Rule: Queen Victoria

Societal Issues:
1800-1850 Population doubled from 9 to 18 million.
Momentous and intimidating social changes. Mind-blowing inventions. (Information overload)
Middle class gained power (businessmen and professionals) and rural workers were forced into poverty.

Famous Authors:
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Robert Browning, Alfred/Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Lewis Carroll, Robert Louis Stevenson, Matthew Arnold, Bram Stoker.

Characteristics of Victorians:
Strict rules, formal mannerisms, defined gender roles (sexual prudery), obsession with public appearance, phenomenal work ethic.

Characteristics of Literature:
Reflects on practical problems (child labor, women’s rights, poverty, etc.), closer to daily life, asserts moral purpose (religion, evolution, etc.), truth, justice, love, brotherhood.