was one of the first five people sent out as foreign missionary
He also was a Congregationalist While going to India he took on Baptist ideas. When to prison because they thought he was an English spy. Was released because of the war. He became a translator and spoke a treaty at the end of the war. He married two other missionaries before he new she had died.
Was in India he was converted to Baptist and got baptized. Moved to Burma now called Myanmar because of political issues. Was a evangelist and was a Bible translator.
called Nancy She didn’t warm to Baptist views so quickly but argued with her husband but did get baptized with her husband. She was the only white woman in Burma. she disciple children. Adopted a child. She got sick for seven years so they sent her home. She died of a disease and stress gave birth to a child and it died a month later.
One of the five friends of Adonirma Judson he became a Baptist after searching scriptures and he was baptized. He resigned from the Congregationalist church. He went back to America to help the Baptist see that they need to take care of missionaries he ended up staying to help with support for missionaries because he did it better then anyone else. He helped form Triennial convention. Also had a vision to form a National Baptist University in DC. Columbian college was formed. In 1826 he was terminated due to fundraising and fiscal policies from the Triennial Convention.
Formation of the Triennial Convention (1814)
They formed this general missionary convention. and they called it Triennial Convention which means every three years. First step in forming a denomination.
Baptist Denominational Expansion in the South 1826-1845
Southerners feel marginalized and focus on jut the south they formed new state conventions of those men in NC the pastor of FBC New Bern. He founded the Baptist State convention of NC and founded Biblical Recorder and Wake Forest College. Other state conventions are SC,GA,VA and AL.
Anti-Mission Baptists Early Critics of Mission and Denominationalism
John Leland, John Taylor, Daniel Parker, Alexander Campbell
He was the first Baptist to say missions weren’t biblical and is an early critic
Wrote an anti missions book called Thought on Missions,. He attacked missions on moral grounds. They miss use money and abuse power.
He was a traveling man he pastored in GA and IL and then planted First Baptist Church in Texas. He stared the Texas Rangers. He is famous because of his argument against mission. He called it the Two Seeds in the Spirit predestination Baptist. He said everyone is either Gods seed or Satan’s Seed. They become primitive Baptist.
He becomes a Baptist and publishes The Christian Baptist. He has has Exegetical argument against missions. He says that there is no biblical place for missions
Primitive Baptist Vs. Missionary Baptist.
Primitive meant apostolic or Biblical. Anti Missions met in Rhode Island and they write the Black Rock address and it condemned all gospel tracks, societies, Sunday schools and theological schools and PROTRACTED MEETINGS. they say this is all extra biblical. The second awakening by finny isn’t good and only the first one is the best. Black Mark is the formal mark of the primitive Baptist. The they later became hyper Calvinist.
Joshua Lawrence/Kehuckee Association
wrote Kehuckee declaration
The Stone-Campbell Movement (Beginnings)
During the 19th century, They had something called frontier America as the Religious free Market. In this religious free market the winners were the Baptist Methodist and the Presbyterians. There are then new denominations. We call the Restoration. The most famous are the stone Campbell movement. Barton Stone and the Christians.
He rejects Calvinism then started a new thing where they were Armenian and he called his church the Christians or the Christian church.
He starts the reformed Baptist ideas and called them reformed Baptist. They merged with the Armenian (Barton Stones) these movements together to form the Disciples of Christ. this wasn’t a denominations but was just NT church. Baptist called them Campbellites
Stone-Campbell Distinctive and Baptist Reactions
4 different views
1. Belief as intellectual assent to the fact that Jesus is the Christ. And a deficient view of nature of faith.
2.Baptism as the completion of ones salvation a deficient view of regeneration.
3.Biblical interpretation as the supremacy of a literal interpretation of the NT and is a deficient view of Hermeneutics.
4. Biblical authority as a total rejection of all confessions and creeds-deficient view of Sola Scriptura.
5. Hundreds of Baptist churches in KY and TN became Campbellite in the 1820’sand 30’s.
6.There was a theological question that was even though they dunk like Baptist should we consider there baptisms biblically valid. they called there baptism alien Immersion.
7/ Campbellites who joined Baptist churches had to be re-immersed. The church of Christ and the disciples of Christ. Episcopal who dunk.
African American Baptist Missions and Denominationalism
African Americans took on Baptist views. and there were 150,000. African Baptist by 1850 and few black churches and no associations in the south. In the north there were some free black churches in big cities. As far as missions in 1850 white people came up with the African Baptist Missionary Society in Richmond. The they got there first two missionaries called Collin Teague and Lott Carey went to Liberia. Then the American Baptist Missionary convention in NY. Then Black Associations were formed in IL, OH, in the 1840’s
Was one of first African American missionaries
Was one of the first African American missionaries
during 1820 and 1865 the north becomes industrial and the south becomes Agrarian which means farm biased. the south stayed this way because slavery was still ok. Politically they were divided over slavery. The south was patriarchal and honor driven. the north was for Urban and ethically diverse. In religion they become for pluralistic and progressive. the southern religion protestant Calvinist and Conservative. Baptist were more prominent in the South
Financial and Methodological Tensions
Southern churches contributed over twice as much as they received from the home mission society between 1832 through 1841. And the south claimed in which receiving a disproportional low amount of home missionaries compared to the north and the west. There is also a geographical hurdle all the societies were based in the north making widespread south participation difficult. There is also the Baptist in the North and the south also remained divided over the social verses convention methods the Triennial Convention
Many Baptist in the south apposed slavery in 1788 people started losing money buth then the cotton gin was created and slavery the status quo by the 1930’s only ___?__ in Christianity when we have made peace with slavery except in the American South because it was propped up by the South
Slavery as mission strategy
Slavery as economically profitable
Slavery because of race.
The Bible was used to justify slavery.
The mark of Cain was dark skin and the curse of Ham and now they are cursed to serve there brothers. And Northern Baptist increasingly anti-slavery
Baptist Debating Slavery
Abolition and English Baptist anti-slavery critics saying they need to come over to the South and stop slavery. And so the missions board to neutrality. Francis Wayland’s textbook argued slavery is a violation of the bible and natural law. so places band his book. In the 1840’s there were new places like the American Baptist ant-slavery convention and also American Baptist free mission society. Southern back lash against northern Baptist abolitionism and then the Triennial Convention and home mission society declare neutrality on slavery. Most Baptist papers didn’t help the problem which caused the Francis vs. Richard Fuller debate which was in Boston. Wayland was anti slavery and there were people who were Christians that are saved and it is a moral blind spot. Fuller believes there are abuses of slavery and Christians should be helping them out. Then they were put to the papers and was called domestic slavery conspired as a scriptural institution
The Division between Northern and Southern Baptist
The Georgia Test Case and The Alabama Resolutions
Although they were neutral southerners they were convinced that the North were abolitionist. Georgia Baptist Convention requested a missionary to work as an itinerant. Georgia Baptists recommended that the HMS appointed a slave holder as a missionary to native Americans in GA.GA Baptist were miffed that their application was totally ignored by the HMS and the society refusal to act was a violation of neutrality and an insult to the autonomy of the State Convention. Baptist State Convention of Alabama sent a formal inquiry to the board of the Triennial Convention. Can a slave holder be appointed as a foreign missionary? Alabama Baptist felt their churches should have as much say in missionary appointment as the convention it self, one thing is certain we can never be a party to any arrangement which would imply approbation of slavery. Alabama Baptist passed resolutions condemned Triennial Conventions board which ???? all over the South
The Augusta Convention (1845)
In March 1845 VA Baptist denounced the actions of the Triennial convention as unconstitutional and called a Southern withdrawal. And in May 1845 at least 293 Baptist gathered at the meetinghouse of FBC Augusta to form a separate Southern Mission Society. and William B Johnson of SC was elected president. Vast majority of the delegates wanted more then foreign mission society and formed the SBC. They adopted a new constitution the first two acts formed foreign and home mission board They didn’t adopt a new confession of faith. He believed Baptist believe in no creed by the bible. Baptist North and South still considered themselves one denomination until after the civil war
William B Johnson
He was from SC and he was elected president of SBC 1845
Foreign Mission board Formation and Development
The first two acts was to start a foreign mission board. The leading city on the east coast was Richmond VA and they had a long history of Baptist being mission minded. Because its a strategic place it was the head quarters for the foreign mission board. It was an autonomous society and didn’t receive money like it does now. the SBC didn’t give money to the board like it does now. The earliest missions fields for the missions board were china, Liberia and West Africa, Nigeria and Brazil. The missionaries from the South swapped over.
The Gospel Mission Controversy
What does missionary coop look like with other denominations.
Tp Crawford The Gospel Mission Controversy
thought that missionaries should be self supported. Missionaries should never employ nationals for any reason. Because it creates financial dependency He went to the mission board and said they should become policy. they rejected these ideas. There would be no point in having a mission board if that happened and where ever you are some nationals will need to help us with the language. He resigned as a missionary and thought that mission boards aren’t biblical and should only be under the church that sent them. They are all SBC but are all against the mission board. This hinged upon these two missionaries. Once they are gone then they move to the mission board.
Charlotte Diggs ” Lottie” Moon (1840-1912)
The foreign mission board was hesitant to send out single missionary girls. That was broken in 1872. They sent out there 2nd missionary and that was Edonia Moon. Once she arrived in China she wrote letters to her family and it struck her sister Lottie who was a resident in VA and was wealthy and privileged and she went to college when most girls didn’t go to one in VA. she was a mediocre college student and was a flirt who liked to move her body on the dance floor with people of the opposite sex. She was converted by a First Baptist by the name John Broadus he was called the Spergeon of America. She started making good grades and stopped dancing. Then she was appointed as a missionary to China for 30 years. She wrote 100’s of letters of mission board and key Pastors in America the letters kept Baptist in America informed about what was going on in the field. She also used them to recruit people to the field like men. She told other women to give to missions. In 1888 she issued a call to take up a mission offering called the Lottie Moon Christmas offering and has raised 2 billion dollars.
Home Mission Board 1845-1881
The first few decades are not as interesting because of the three things.
1.they were head ordered in Marion AL
2 They suffered from financial problems
3. String of ineffective leaders
They did have success
Planted churches among native Americans
in the days before public education They started grammar school for kids in the Appalachians.
Ministered education among freed African Americans after the Civil War
The Tichenor Administration 1882-1902
He was the head of the home missions board, before this he was highly liked and was the president of Auburn University. Best preachers in the SBC. He said the south would rise again after the economic reconstruction. He was a forward thinking , progressive and thought the reason the north won was because we had more sources. Under his leadership brought financial stability He expanded work into Cuba. Most important leader at the end of the 19th century.
Territorial Tensions with Northern Baptist
Civil War began the process of solidifying Baptist in the North and South. In 1864 the South was losing everything the US war department authorized the Northern mission board . It worked on African Baptist in the South especially black Baptist Colleges.
key leader of Baptist North-dreams to have everyone in one denomination. Tishner didn’t like it and thought the South Baptist were to different and everyone deeded to stay where they are. Baptist leaders went in fortress Monroe Va. and here Morehouse and Tisher were leaders. They agreed to a compromise and put different people in different territories. North placed some in the North, West, South .The only place they worked together was to provide education to blacks in the South. They put states in territories and Monroe was the most famous of comity agreement
The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (1859)
Baptist Ministers in the south were desiring formal education.in many congregations the Pastor is the most educated person. This was hard to embrace later because all Seminaries were in the North. Many wanted a seminary I the north because most would not come back. Southern Seminary in SC was founded by James P Boyce.
James P Boyce
founder of Southern Seminary. He was wealthy was raised in Charleston SC because he was privileged he was the most intelligent and went to Brown The Princeton with Charles Hadge. in 1856. he just joined the Faclety of Ferman as a Theology teacher and preached Chapels and lays out a vision for Southern Seminary. Called three changes in theological institutions three things to characterize….
1.Graduate education and practical education for those who haven’t been to college and functions like a college.
2.there was also specialized advanced courses for people who want teaching and writing research.
3. In denomination with no article of faith. Thought they should have a clear theological identity in a confession of faith. and every proff. should have to believe it to teach it
Boyce recruited a faculty like John Protus, Bazel Manly Jr. a Pastor in Charleston and his dad was president of Alabama. he was also a Chaplin to the confederacy and lastly William Williams. Boyce paid to keep the seminary afloat and started a campaign to help raise money Atlanta Birmingham and Chattanooga weren’t big enough. They chose Kentucky because it was in the center of SBC territory. this was a South city that wasn’t’ part of the confederacy.
He was a Baptist preacher and proff. at Ferman and Startest of the South.
Broutus ?? is this John Protus
he manly drafted the confessional statement called the abstract of principles. This drew upon the New Hampshire and the Philadelphia one. This was broad enough that any Baptist could affirm it.
Woman’s Missionary Union (1888)
in 1868 Baptist women met informally at the time for the SBC annual meeting, in 1876 state conventions began to start women’s missions committees first was in SC. in 1885 for the first time some women attempted to attend the SBC meeting as messengers who wre from Arkansas and were disqualified on the grounds of woman are to be silent in the church. They changed name from messengers to brethren. By constitution and bylaws they cant be involved. They can be involve with the SBC in 1887 a the SBC meeting in Lewisville a woman from Baltimore named Annie Armstrong called for a national womens conference. When word reached Lottie she thought is was a great idea. In 1888 when the SBC was in Richmond a new organization was formed called the woman’s missionary union. Not official to the SBC but meets in conjuction with the SBC.
was the head of the WMU She used this position to become a key leader in the SBC. she is the only lady involved with making decisions. She is a strong supporter of missions. The first offering come out of the WMU. They expanded to the WMU training school to train them to become missionaries. The key leader of the school was Fanny Heck
She was a key leader of the WMU training school. she was a member of FBC of Raleigh. she also founded two most famous organizations called RA and GA’s focused on missions education and about SBC missions.
The Baptist Sunday School Board
The first generation of SBC tried to start Sunday school but didn’t last. They didn’t like the northern sunday school material because they thought people would move north. Tisher and Armstorng thought how to have their own board in 1891 at the SBC meeting in AL they voted to start an official Sunday School Board. The first leader was JM Frost
first leader of the Sunday School Board once he ran the board the board pioneered influential ministries such as graded Sunday School curriculum, In the days before YG Sunday school board started Baptist young peoples union. Baptist training Union which is discipleship training. Frost also was an accomplished write one was called why I’m a Baptist
4 key contributions to modern SBC
1.provided a cradle to grave approach to a Christian education
2. Baptist principles and loyalty to Baptist
3.Literature promoted southern identity and value
4.Helped promote uniformity in doctrine and practice in a autonomous churches
Landmark Theological Distinctive
During mid 1800s they became popular in the Midwest and South West.
They didn’t invent new doctrines but took ideas that have been floating around and formed a theological system.
They argued that there has always been Baptist churches and that they are the only true churches
they didn’t believe you had to be a Baptist to be saved but they said this because there is always Baptist churchesand because the gates of hell will never overcome the church
Like apostolic successions but Baptist.
Argued against universal church only Baptist ordnances are true ordnances.
Only Baptism in a Baptist church and only Baptist pastors are true pastors
You aren’t ordained if it wasn’t in a Baptist church
Baptist churches only cooperated in Baptist churches in cotton Grove Tenn. in 1851 they were put in the cotton grove resolutions
Landmark Theological Distinctive
Reason for movements
Baptist needed to defend there legitimacy because they don’t have a famous founder.
they had to account for sectarian tendencies
Distinctive movement in Southern Baptist
The Era of progressive ascendancy
The bureaucratization of the southern Baptists
The quest for Efficiency
SBC as a national denomination they extended to all 50 states which caused an increased emphasis on efficiency in local churches specialized ministries were formed to have efficiency. They then adopted Modern corporate practices. Pastors became cooperate administrators and deacons became abortive directors. Anew term for deacons became the Deacon board. In the 1952 the (exec)???? called upon Booz, Allen, and Hamilton (mid 1950s) to see how they were doing and critiquing them. Because it was successful people like the Sunday school board and Southern seminary did this as well to help them be better.
The Era of progressive ascendancy
Expansion and Growth
The post war years was when the church got the most growth.by 1963 SBC passes Methodists as largest denomination on paper they still were the biggest. The reason for this is because our efficient outreach programs such as a million more and 54 was to enroll and 1 million more into Sunday school. they did what they wanted and there were 597,361. baptisms. this proved Sunday school driven outreach was the best and became a good outreach till the 90’s. the conventions bureaucracy; expanded along with Historical commission Radio and Television Commission and in 1960 – Stewardship commission then these tow places became SBC Golden gate Baptist Theological Seminary )SBC (1950)
1957 Midwestern Baptist Theological seminary
The era of progressive ascendancy
Southeastern Baptist Theological seminary 1950
in the 1940’s pastors began to argue about how there was a desire for a seminary on East Coast. Then Wake Forest College outgrew the place of Wake Forest and so the SBC campus purchased from Wake Forest College and that was seed money to make the new campus (1950) the SEBTS was opened up and then both SEBTS and Wake Forest College shared campus. SEBTS classes began on WFC campus 1951 Campus shared from 1951-1956
Shifting Denominational Identity
Pragmatic versus Principled Cooperation
prior to the 20th century Southern Baptist were about common doctrine. In the early 20th century the pragmatic emphasis upon efficiency common commitment to cooperative missions by the mid-20th century and found they were held together by a pragmatic commitment to missions the southern Baptist did not become liberal but what was holding them together was there programs and not there theology. One side effect they became Relatively a theological, pragmatic emphasis on evangelism and growth but this separated it from theology then a shift in local church identity happened. Instead of looking at covenant local Baptist church as a body of believers among many things they existed to be out reach centers. This is when alter calls became known. Many became saved but we also lost important in church covenants and confessions of faith. church discipline was forgotten church roles were kept by people who didn’t attend the worship service. In the 70’s it was good if 50 percent came to church it wasn’t till the 90s when church discipline started to be in church again
Southern Baptist Tribalism
Tribal/programmatic identity-a tribe is like minded people eacting in like minded ways Baptist were nurtured from the cradle to death. the had RA’s and GA’s state papers promote programmatic identity. then Southern Baptist became isolationism. The SBC was set apart because a lot of SBCers were landmarkers and there was denominational self sufficiency.
Progressive theology in the SBC
The Seminaries Mid 1950’s
–Mid-1950s Eric Rust at southern and he argued the bodily
resurrection was a myth and the “myth” of the resurrection (SBTS)
the Seminaries 1958
1958- Duke McCall president of southern and was in power struggle with proffs. and they said he was a dictator and not a real scholar and said they were liberals and they fired 12 proffs. for being wrong and went to Midwestern and southeastern and this was called “Lexington road Massacre” (SBTS)
–1961 Dale Moody at southern teaches Arminianism and said they could be born again and lose it. The weren’t Calvinist but it has never been an option to say you can fall from grace.
(SBTS) he doesn’t lose his job but retires.
1956–At new Orleans was on a Heresy trail. Frank Stagg Heresy trial (NOBTS) in 1964 went to Southern, Atonement never happened
Theodore Clark’s Saved By His Life (NOBTS) saved by following Jesus’ example other then the blood atonement and made fun of hymns that mentioned the blood of Christ and so they terminated him
NAT profs adopt views of Rudolf Bultmann &”demythologize” the Bible (SEBTS) 3 of the 4 proffs. were bultmanian the president was Sid Staley because of this controversy Dr. Binkley met with the men and said they had to find another place to teach and none were terminated and then they went to other Baptist colleges. 24 proffs. are with the guys who said they had to stop and 14 said they should have freedom.
Ralph Elliott (MBTS) publishes The Message of Genesis with Broadman Press (1961) questioned the historicity of Genesis and it asked then to deal with theological problems when they occur.. 1962 convention motion criticizing heterodoxy in seminaries they didn’t want controversy as long as it didn’t go into a 2nd edition he could keep his job but it has sold out and needed a 2nd edition and he wrote the 2nd one and was kicked out for going against the trustees then became a proff. among American Baptist. he claimed his beliefs were mainstream and argued SBCers were double speaking. A controversy was a revision to the Baptist faith and message and Herschel Hobbs and the influence of E. Y Mullins and he said they were double speaking they also added a preamble that emphasize soul competency then took care of it.
Broadman Bible Commentary Controversy
1969 they got G. Henton Davies writes commentary on Genesis and he argued for all positions that Elliott did. and 1970 motion was passed calling upon the Sunday School board to pull & rewrite the commentary and was written by a conservative. and they had a motion that all seminary professors be required to annually affirm inerrancy as ruled out of order last problem in the SBC
Conservative reactions to progressive theology
people got frustrated and so there was a growth of Independent Baptists in 1950s & 1960s. this was so serious Highland park Baptist Church of Chattanooga (1956) and led the SBC in baptisms.
Jack Hyles left his church and started pastoring & first Baptist Church Hammond, IN (1959) this was the largest Baptist church in the 70s even conservatives networked with independent Baptist and he wrote the Influence of John R. Rice’s Sword of the Lord. Most independent churches replace RA’s and GA’s with AWANAS and won started Liberty Baptist college. SBC evangelists & independent fundamentalists.
They formed alternative ministries to fundamental ministries and in 1962 – Luther Rice Bible college and Seminary. and was an unofficial SBC school and only hired SBC proffs. and to make sure of this they had to sign a confession of faith that is clear on three doctrines such as biblical inerrancy 6 day young earth and the pre-tribulation rapture. Luther Rice started schooling and then W.A. Criswell’s “School of the Prophets” at FBC Dallas and he Criswell was SBC president from 1968-1970 author of why I Preach the bible is Literally True(1969) he was a leading fundamentalism preaching and evangelism
1971 Criswell Institute for biblical Studies
They hirer Paige Patterson and he becomes president of CIBs under him they became accredited and lead training grounds in the 70s the in 1971 Mid-America Baptist theological seminary they were conservatives they focused on tradition education no one paid for school beside room and board some fundies wanted to change this one by the name of Bill Powell & the Baptist Faith and Message fellowship. Harold Lindsell writes The Battle for the Bible this looks a different school and ministers saying the bible had errors.
The Civil Rights Era
1877 – southern states began to pass laws that systematically undermined the civil right of blacks (Jim Crow)Jim Crow law make it difficult to vote the supreme court case Plessy vs. Ferguson affirms “separate but equal”doctrine. This caused the south almost totally segregated first half of 29th century. There was few places for blacks to be leaders then in the church Minimal racial interchange besides music then there was Vigilantism (lynching)
The civil Rights Era
1948- US military desegregated by Truman he did this by executive order then in 1954-Supreme court ruled in Brown vs. board of Education that the “separate but equal” is unconstitutional. This meant public schools had to separate. Then — Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus boycott. then 1955 – Martin Luther King Jr. emerges as a leader and because he was young he was there spokesman. then with civil Rights Act outlaws segregation
Black Baptists as Civil Rights Leaders
Martin Luther King Jr.
>Nonviolent civil disobedience Co.
founded southern Christian Leadership conference 1957,
>Led marches on Washington DC and Selma, AL,
>Opposed Vietnam War and wrote “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” 1963
>received Nobel Peace Prize 1964 & papal peace award 1965
>assassinated in Memphis, TN 1968
Black Baptist as Civil Rights Leaders
>Co-founded Southern Christian Leadership conference and helped organize the Freedom Rides 1961
Black Baptist as Civil Rights leaders
Ralph David Abernathy
>From Montgomery, AL
Tensions among Black Baptists
>National Baptist convention in the USA split
>President Joseph Jackson
>Martin Luther King Jr. wanted the NBC to be more proactive
>Brooklyn Pastor Gardner Taylor against Jackson for the denominations’ presidency & Lost
>NBC refused to put tenure limit on Jackson
>King,Taylor, and others formed the progressive National Baptist convention 1961
>The PNBC much more vocal in the Civil Rights Movement
White Baptist and Civil Rights
>SBC Leadership moderately favored desegregation most leading Pastors and Convention passed a resolution praising Brown vs. board of Education at the 1954 SBC
>Role of Christian Life commission also many Pastors opposed desegregation, including Criswell at FBC Dallas & Douglas Hudgens at FBC Jackson, MS also White Citizen’s Council and the Ku Klux Klan. Race & church membership
>Missionaries to Africa and the Woman’s Missionary Union championed the Civil Rights Movement. They thought it was inconsistent to teach people of dark skin in other places
but wrong that we don’t in our home town.
>Conservatives anti-Civil Rights, progressives pro-Civil Rights.
>1942 –Clarence Jordan founded Koinonia Farms in Southwest GA was habitat for humanity
>1959 – SWBTS ethicist T.B. Maston wrote The Bible and Race argued equality of all people because of the imago dei.
>1961—-Martin Luther King jr. taught in chapel at SBTS
>1968–W.A. Criswell preaches “Church of the Open Door” where he opened the door for blacks to come in there doors. there church helped found a children’s home
>1995 –SBC resolution on racial reconciliation
>2012 –Fred Luter elected first African American president of SBC
The Era of conservative resurgence 1979-2000
Baptist Puritans, or the “Truth party”
Theologically consevatives who were willing to contend for their convictions and what this meant was trying to change the culture Jerry Sutton call them Baptist puritans and Al Mohler called them the Truth Mohler they were the Most contemporary SBC leaders .they were Paige Patterson, Paul Pressler, Adrian Rogers, Charles Stand
ley, & Jerry Vines.
Most contemporary SBC leaders
Baptist Pluralists, or the “Liberty Party”
The second vision was either Theologically progressives or those loyal to theprogressive status quo. They were willing to resist the conservative dissenters. “Baptist Pluralists” (Jerry Sutton) or “Liberty Party” (Al Mohler) most contemporary moderates were mentored by this part which were Cecil Sherman, Walter Shurden ,Norman Cavender, Jim Slatton, & several SBC seminary presidents
Most contemporary Moderates
several SBC seminary presidnents
Baptist Pietists, or the “Compromise Party”
…The third view the Majority that was theologically conservative but who desired for SBC to cease fighting and wants the two extremes on the spectrum to cooperate. Finn calls them “Baptist Pietists” or Compromise Party” (Nathan Finn) they, committed to perpetuating the pragmatic, atheological approach to Baptist identiy, & cooperation and many leaders in this group gradually drift to the left or right. Drift towar Truth Party: Ken Hamphill, Charles Fuller, and John Bisagno. Drift toward Freedom Party: Jimmy Carter, Richard Jackson, and Daniel Vestal
The Inerrancy Controversy, 1979-1990
New Conservative Leaders
Two key players Paul Pressler (1932-present)
Paul Presler (1932-present)
was teacher of teenagers he became upset because they went to Baylor and they leaned more liberal. He finds that in SBC seminaries progressive theology they should believe this. he complained and they set him up with Patterson they had coffee and they talked about what if conservatives could take over the SBC. they met at the Cafe’ du Monde in New Orleans (1967)
Paige Patterson (1942-present
he is a follower of Creswell. In the 60s they were students of NO seminary. and a problem became they were conservative views and argued with the school.
New Conservative Strategy
as Presler and Pattersons friendship grew they had a scheme to Elect a string of conservative presidents. The president didn’t know there power and that Presidents would appoint only conservatives to the SBC Committee on Committees. Committee on Committees would appoint only conservatives to open trustee positions then they had a Strategic focus on biblical inerrancy they did it for theological and strategic reasons. Same epistemology and they said conservatives could talk about this. This forced the non inerrant Patterson and Pressler garnered support among conservatives with all eyes focused on the 1979 Houston Convention
Motivations for a conservative takeover
>Conservatives claimed SBC needed theological purification
>Conservatives theological concerns mythological misinterpretation, women in ministries, conservative political agenda. Concerned about liberal democrats they were mostly concerned about Seminaries, Christian Life commission, Baptist Joint Committee. The Progressives claimed it was all about power they said they were Progressive political & ecclesiastical concerns.( J Frank Norris)
The Houston Convention (1979)
W.A. Criswell & the Pastor’s Conference he brought up Adrian Rogers of Bellevue Baptist Church Memphis, TN. Rogers won on the first ballot with 51.36 percent Houston didn’t like it and Presler didn’t know he couldn’t do what he did. There were voting iregalities.
The Birth of the Moderate Movement (1980)
When Rogers was elected Bailey Smith of OK was elected the new SBC president. Rogers declined a second term then Russ Bush and Tom Nettles wrote Baptists and the Bible this argued for inerrancy when God speaks in his work it is true. The Pressler announced conservatives were “going for the jugular” He was going after the trustees Cecil Sherman convenes 17 pastors in Gatlinburg, TN (“The Gatlinnburg Gang”) they thought progressives needed another movement and so it became “Moderates” vs “fundamentalists” Makeup of the moderate coalition included theological liberals in
seminaries and New Orthodoxy. women In ministry where ever they were they believed the SBC was big enough that what one believes shouldn’t matter.
Conservatives Resurge (1980-2000)
>Conservatives won every presidential election during the 1980s
>and started Resolutions: ordination of women (1984)
The priesthood of all believers (1988)
>several on abortion or homosexuality
>1985 45,519 messengers registered for the Dallas Convention.
>1986 –Glorietta Statement
>1985-1987 – Peace committee was formed
1991- SBC defunded the Baptist Joint Committee and Rushlikon Seminary
> 1986 –Bill Crews elected president of GGBTS
>1987—-Larry Lewis elected president of Home Mission Board
>1988 — Lewis Drummond elected president of SEBTS
>1988 —Richard Land elected president of Christian Life Commission
> 1991 —- Jimmy Draper elected president of Sunday School Board
>1992 —Jerry Rankin elected president of Foreign Mission Board
>1992—- Morrris Champman elected president of Executive Committee
> 1993 —Al Mohler elected president of SBTS
>1995– Ken Hemphill elected president of SWBTS
> 1996—–Chuck Kelley elected president of NOBTS
>1997 —SBC was restructured
>1998 —BF&M was amended to include an article on “The Family”
>2000— BF&M was revised to make it more consistently conservative
Moderates Disengage from the SBC (1980-2000)
>1983—-Baptist Women in Ministry
>1984—-The SBC Forum
>1989—Baptist House at Duke Divinity School
>1990 —Associated Baptist Press
>1991 —Baptist Theological seminary at Richmond
>1993—Truett Theological Seminary at Baylor
>1995—Campbell University Divinity School
>1996 –McAfee School of Theology at Mercer
>1999 – Wake Forest School of Divinity
>State Baptist colleges disaffiliate or disengage
>Alliance of Baptists (1986)
>Cooperative Baptist Fellowship (1991)
Southeastern Seminary (1980-present)
>SEBTS the most progressive SBC seminary before 1980s
>1987 –Conservatives took over trustee board
>1987–President Randall Lolley & Dean Morris Ashcraft resign
>1988 –Lewis Drummond was elected president
>1989–Russ Bush selected as dean
>1992—Paige Patterson was elected president
>1994–The College at Southeastern established
>1995–PHD program established
>2003–Paige Patterson elected presidents of SWBTS
>2004-Danny Akin elected president
>2006–Bush Center for Faith and culture established
>2007–Nathan Finn hired to teach Baptist history (hooray)
>2010- SEBTS celebrates 60th anniversary
>2013- Enrollment reaches a record 3084 students