AP Language Rhetorical/Literary Terms

Allusion
:reference to another work that the author assumes the audience is familiar with

Anaphora
:repetition of initial words
(of phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs)
-> ex.”Those that know, do. Those that understand, teach.” Aristotle

Anecdote
:, a brief narrative that focuses on a particular incident or event, a short account

Aphorism/maxim
:saying (short, clever, memorable)
-meant to teach an idea

Appeals (ethos,pathos,logos)
ethos-ethical;appealing to themselves, trustworthy, credible, believable
pathos-appeal to the audience through pathos; how we appeal emotional, passions, emotions, sympathy,empathy
logos-appeal to the argument itself, logical

Argument
:collected series of statements to establish a preposition (truth,belief); series of facts, logical

Colloquialism
:informal words or expressions not usually acceptable in formal writing
ex. y’all (Grapes of Wrath)

Connotation vs. Denotation
Denotation-literal definition
Connotation-feeling; what is implied

Context
:writings preceding and following the passage quoted; circumstance in which an event occurs, discourse surrounding the language

Controlling Image/Controlling Methaphor
:analogy->extended metaphor; carried through the work; introduce analogy and keep coming back to it

Epigraph
:a quotation or motto placed at the beginning of a book, chapter, or poem, as an indication of its theme

Figurative Language
speech or writing that departs from literal meaning in order to achieve a special effect or meaning, speech or writing employing figures of speech (metaphor, simile etc.)

Hyperbole
:overstatement, an exaggeration, to express strong emotion or stress a point

Irony (three kinds)
:subtly humorous perception of inconsistency
1. Verbal-sarcasm
2. Dramatic-reader has perception, character doesn’t
3. Situational-situation reader didn’t expect

Litotes
understatement for rhetorical effect (especially when expressing an affirmative by negating its contrary)
-double negative

Metaphor
:indirect comparison,
-a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity

Metonymy
:replaces the name of something with something closely related to it
ex.-> (“The pen [writing] is mightier than the sword [war/fighting].”)

Oxymoron
:two words that contrast; placed side by side
(ex. Jumbo shrimp)

Parallelism
:use of repeated grammatical structures
*provides rhythm to the writing
*sense of balance

Paraphrase
:rewording for the purpose of clarification; restate in other words

Peroration
:speech; last line of a speech that sums up the rhetorical purpose

Persona
:communicator, role, voice, speaker, sender

Personification
:anything non-human compared to a human/given human qualities

Persuasion
:act of seeking to change someone’s point of view
(includes going beyond reason and logic; includes emotion)

Rhetoric
:the deliberate manipulation of eloquence for the most persuasive effect in public speaking or writing
(the way writers on purpose,control, or shape, beautiful language to persuade a reader)

Rhetorical Question
:asked only for rhetorical effect, not meant to get an answer

Rhetorical Triangle
Created by Aristotle
1. Subject-topic,content,subject matter
2. Persona- sender, role, voice, speaker, communicator
3. Audience- receiver of the communication, reader
(The triangle shows that components of a rhetorical situation are interdependent on each other; connected)
*Rhetorical Purpose is in the middle of the the triangle*

Satire (Horation and Juvenalian)
:kind of writing, NOT a technique
-a mode of writing that exposes the failings of individuals, institutions or societies to ridicule and scorn {for humorous effect}
1. Horation Satire: humorous effect
2. Juvenalian Satire: exposing failings, look down on them, serious effect

Simile
:direct comparison
-a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with ‘like’ or ‘as’)

SOAPS (rhetorical situation)
S-speaker
O-occasion (history, content, circumstance)
A-audience
P-purpose
S-subject
SOAPS-*depicts what we are prompted by

Support/Evidence/Data
:material offered in evidence of an argument

Synecdoche
:”part of the whole”
ex. all hands on deck

Tone
:emotions being conveyed through the language

Trope (all kinds; on handout)
Tropes: any artful variation from the typical way a word o idea is expressed; works with connotations and figurative language
Categories of Tropes
1. Trope Comparison:
-Simile
-Metaphor
-Personification
-Synecdoche
-Metonymy
2. Tropes of Word Play
-Pun: play on words
-Onomatopoeia: use of words that imitate the sound they refer to
3. Tropes of Overstatement or Understatement
-Hyperbole/overstatement-exaggeration
-Litotes/understatement-usually used with double negative (ex.”It is not uncommon…”)
4. Tropes of Meaning
-Irony
-Oxymoron
-Rhetorical Question

Unreliable Narrator
: when the narrator is not entirely credible
(ex. no real background, no formal education,young,crazy etc.)