AP English Satire words

Satire
A humorous writing that ridicules the shortcomings of people or institutions in an attempt to bring about change; a literary work in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, or wit

What are the purposes of satire?
1. real-world change or reform. 2. honest re-examination of values 3. development of new goals, attitudes, or perspectives

What are the tools of satire?
wit, fantasy, irony, sarcasm, hyperbole, understatement, invective, malapropism, incongruity, puns, double entendre, paradox, hyperbole, meiosis, sarcasm, contradiction, distortion, oxymoron, reversal,ambiguity

Why do satirists use wit?
to make readers laugh at their own faluts. They hope that readers will recognize their weaknesses and correct the. It often combines incongruous ideas in a humorous and unexpected way.

Why do satirists use fantasy?
to create a world where common sense has collapsed. Thy call attention to social ills by presenting readers with a distorted view of the world.

Why do satirist use irony?
to point out discrepancies between appearances and reality and to criticize human weakness

Why do satirists use sarcasm?
to ridicule a subject. It is meant to be hurtful.

Why do satirists use hyperbole?
to make something look ridiculous or worse than it really is

Why do satirists use understatement?
to emphasize the enormity of a problem

Invective
Very abusive, usually nonironical language aimed at particular target (i.e. a string of curses). It can be quite funny, but it is the least inventive of the satirist’s tools.

Caricature
Technique of exaggeration, to achieve a grotesque or ridiculous effect, for a comic and satiric effect. Caricature ludicrously exaggerates the peculiarities or defects of the target.

Lampoon
Harsh and personal attack on a very particular, recognizable target, often focusing on the target’s character, behavior, or habits

Parody
Deliberately seeks to ridicule another style. The write imitates the original very well, pushing it beyound its limits and making it ridiculous

Burlesque
Ridiculous exaggeration in language, usually one which makes the discrepancy between the word and the situation or the caricature silly.

Mock heroic
Sets up disproportionate and witty distance between the elevated language used to describe an action and the triviality or foolishness of the action.

Reductio ad absurdum
The author agrees enthusiastically with the basic attitudes or assumptions he wishes to satirize and, by pushing them to a logically ridulous extreme, exposes the foolishness of the original attitudes and assumptions

Double entendre
To turn upside down, outside in, or inside out; to reverse, as in order to , a statement that has two meanings, one of which is dirty or vulgar

Horation satires
Humorous, lighthearted jabbing

Juvenalian
Harsh, bitter, cruel mocking

Meiosis
Reference to something with a name disproportionately lesser than its nature (a kind of litotes).

Litote
Deliberate understatement, especially when expressing a thought by denying its opposite.

Dramatic irony
When the audience knows more than the characters

Verbal irony
Occurs when what is said contradicts what is meant or thought

Situational irony
Occurs when the outcome of a work is unexpected, or events turn out to be the opposite from what one had expected

Farcical
Absurd; ridiculous . A farce is a comedy which aims at entertaining the audience by means of unlikely, extravagant, and improbable situations, disguise and mistaken identity, verbal humor of varying degrees of sophistication, which may include word play, and a fast-paced plot whose speed usually increases, culminating in an ending which often involves an elaborate chase scene

Dimunition
Lessening; reduction in size

Incongruity
Lack of harmony; absurdity; ADJ. incongruous: lacking in harmony; inappropriate

Distortion
Taking something out of its ordinary surroundings sometimes reveals its idocy or inadequacies. Distortion unmasks an idea.

Reversal
To present the opposite of the normal order, which is a type of distrotion, by reversal gets us to look at what should be by way of contrast

Reduction
Look for caricatures or othe rways to knock the corrupt and powerful off their self-made pedestals. When a sneaky politician looks clownish in a cartoon, that’s reduction.

When you are trying to understand satire, what three things should you look for?
Target, purpose, and techniques