Describe and understand the usage of the following directional terms: Dorsal – same as posterior, back side Ventral – same as anterior, front side Superior – top Inferior – down Anterior – front Posterior – back Medial – towards the middle Median – midpoint Lateral – towards the sides Superficial – towards the exterior Deep – inside tissue Proximal – close to Distal -far away Correctly use directional terms to describe positions of body parts and planes and sections to divide the body.
Longitudinal planes Societal – vertical plane cuts body to right and left sides Mitigate – lane passes through the midlines of the body or organ divides it into equal right and left sides Parasitical – divides the body or organ into unequal right and left sides Frontal or Coronal – divides the body or organ into front and back and portions Transverse plane (cross section) – divides the body or organ into Per and lower portions. Describe the location of each of the major body cavities and their subdivisions and list major organs contained within each cavity or subdivision.
Dorsal body cavity (contains cranial and vertebral subdivisions) Ventral body cavity (contains thoracic and abdominally subdivisions) Define medications Describe the general structure and function and location of serous membranes (pericardium, pleurae, peritoneum). Serous membranes are thin, slippery double-layered membranes that cover the viscera within the thoracic and abdominal cavities and line the walls of the thorax and abdomen researched – serous membrane of the pericardia cavity.
The visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart; the parietal pericardium lines the chest wall. Peritoneum – the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity. The visceral peritoneum covers the abdominal viscera, and the parietal peritoneum lines the abdominal wall Pleura – The serous membrane of the pleural cavities is called the pleura (POLO-RA) (see Figure 1 . AAA). The visceral pleura clings to the surface Of the lungs, and the parietal pleura lines the chest wall Describe the general structure and function and location of the engines
Engines – three layers of protective tissues that line the cranial cavity and vertebral canal Describe the locations of the four abdominally quadrants. Right upper quadrant – liver, gallbladder Left upper quadrant – stomach, large intestine Right lower quadrant – small intestine, large intestine Left lower quadrant – urinary bladder, small intestine The body systems illustrated in this chapter will not be tested on the next exam, but you will find it helpful to refer to these illustrations as you begin your study of each individual body system.
Learning Objectives for Chapter 4 THE TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION It is just not true that only our most gifted students can do demanding work. Our competitors all around the world know that effort, not ability, makes the biggest difference in educational achievement. President Bill Clinton Distinguish sis among the four basic types of body tissues and state the functions of cell junctions. Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts. It also forms glands. Connective tissue protects and supports the body and its organs.
Various types of connective tissue bind organs together, store energy reserves as fat, and help roved immunity against disease-causing organisms. Muscle tissue generates the physical force needed to make body structures move and generates body heat. Nervous tissue detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and outside the body and responds by generating nerve impulses that activate muscular contractions and glandular secretions. Cell Junctions ; Most epithelial cells and some muscle and nerve cells are tightly joined into functional units by points of contact between their plasma membranes.
Some cell junctions form tight seals between cells, like a zip-lock loser at the top of a plastic storage bag, that prevent substances from passing between the cells Describe the basic organization of epithelial tissue: Consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in either single or multiple layers. The cells are closely packed with little intracellular space between adjacent plasma membranes and are held tightly together by many cell junctions. State the location, source, and function of the basement membrane basement membrane – is a thin extracurricular layer that consists of two layers, the basal lamina and reticular lamina.
Functions as a point of attachment of epithelium and connective tissue; it also supports the overlying epithelial tissue. Two general types of epithelium. Covering and lining epithelium – forms the outer covering of the skin and some internal organs. Glandular epithelium – constitutes the secreting portion of glands such as the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and sweat glands Distinguish between simple and stratified epithelial and describe exogamous, cuboids, and columnar epithelial cells.
Simple epithelial – consist Of single cell layer, typically found where absorption, secretion, and filtration occur Stratified epithelial – two or more cell layers tacked on top of one another, common in high-abrasion areas where protection is important such as the skin and mouth Exogamous cells flattened and scale-like epithelial cell Cuboids cells – box like epithelial cell, approximately as tall as they are wide Columnar cells – tall and column shaped epithelial cell Define mesospheric and endothelial.
Endothelial- The simple exogamous epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels Mesospheric – the type that forms the epithelial layer Of serous membranes State the function of glands and distinguish between exocrine and endocrine glands. Function of glands is secretion. It secretes substances into ducts, onto a surface, or into the blood. Exocrine glands – Secrete their products onto body surfaces like the skin or into body cavities. This includes mucous, sweat, oil, and saliva Endocrine glands – often times lose their ducts are are also known as ductless glands.
They produce hormones and regulatory chemicals that are cosseted into the extracurricular space. List the major functions of connective tissue It binds together, supports, and strengthens Other body tissues; protects and insulates internal organs; transport blood, fluid and stores energy. Describe the extracurricular matrix The extracurricular matrix consists of ground substance and fibers. State the functions of ground substance and the three types of fibers. Ground substance – supports cells, binds them together, stores water, and provides a medium through which substances are exchanged between the blood and cells.
It plays an active role in how tissues develop, migrate, proliferate, and change shape, and in how they carry out their metabolic functions Fibers in the matrix strengthen and support connective tissues. Collagen fibers – very strong but flexible, found in cartilage. Elastic Fibers mailer than collagen, can stretch up to 150% of their relaxed length without breaking, found in skin and blood vessel walls Reticular fibers – thinner than collagen and form branching networks. Provide support and strength found in connective tissues.
Distinguish between “cite” and “blast” cells of connective tissues. Blast – which means ‘to bud or sprout. “These immature cells are called fibroblasts in loose and dense connective tissue, counterblasts in cartilage, and steamboats in bone. Cites – once the extracurricular matrix is produced, the blast cells differentiate into mature cells with names ending in -cite, namely constricted and coyotes Define tendon and ligament and state the connective tissue type of which they are composed.
Tendon (dense connective tissue) – attach muscle to bone Ligament (dense connective tissue) – attach bone to bone Define membrane and contrast the general location and function of mucous membranes and serous membranes. Membrane – flat sheets of pliable tissue that covers or line a part of the body. Mucous membrane – lines a body cavity that opens directly to the exterior. Mucous membranes line the entire digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts, and much of the urinary tract. Serous membrane -lines a odd cavity that does not open directly to the exterior, and it covers the organs that lie within the cavity.
Serous membranes consist of areola connective tissue covered by mesospheric Identify and state the functions and general locations of each of the following epithelial tissues: Simple exogamous epithelium Description: Single layer of flat cells Locations: Lines heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels Functions: Filtration and diffusion Simple cuboids epithelium Description: Single layer of cube-shaped cells Locations: Covers surface of ovary, lines kidney tubules Functions: Secretion and absorption.
Simple columnar epithelium Description: Single layer of annunciated rectangular cells with nuclei near base of cells Locations: Lines gastrointestinal tract from stomach to anus, ducts of many glands, and gallbladder. Sequestration’s columnar epithelium Description: Not a true stratified tissue; nuclei of cells are at different levels Locations: Lines the airways of most of upper respiratory tract, larger ducts of many glands, and reproductive tract. Functions: Secretion and movement of mucus by culinary action.
Stratified Squamish epithelium (scrutinized and non- scrutinized) Description: Several layers of cells Locations: Scrutinized variety forms superficial layer of skin; nonresidential variety lines wet surfaces, such as lining of the mouth, esophagi, and vagina, and covers the tongue. Function: Protection. Transitional epithelium Description: Appearance is variable ranges from exogamous (when stretched) to cuboids (when relaxed). Locations: Lines urinary bladder and portions of Reuters and urethra. Function: Permits distention.
Identify* and state the functions and general locations of each of the following connective tissues. Connective Tissue Proper (know that the fibroblast is the main cell type of this connective tissue) Loose connective issue – the fibers are loosely intertwined and many cells are present Areola Connective Tissue* Description: Consists of fibers (collagen, elastic, and reticular) and several kinds of cells (fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, advocates, and mast cells) embedded in a semisolid ground substance.
Locations: Subcutaneous layer deep to skin; superficial region of dermis of skin (deep to the epidermis); mucous membranes; and around blood vessels, nerves, and body organs. Functions: Strength, elasticity, and support. Adipose Tissue (with Advocates)* Description: Consists Of advocates, cells specialized to store triglycerides fats) as a large centrally located droplet; nucleus and cytoplasm are peripherally located.
Locations: Subcutaneous layer deep to skin, around heart and kidneys, yellow bone marrow, and padding around joints and behind eyeball in eye socket. Functions: Reduces heat loss through skin; serves as an energy reserve, supports, and protects. Reticular Connective Tissue* Description: Consists of network of interlacing reticular fibers and reticular cells. Locations: Strata (supporting framework) of liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Functions: Forms strata of organs; filters and removes worn-out blood cells in spleen and microbes in lymph nodes.
Dense connective tissue – contains more fibers but fewer cells than loose connective tissue Regular* – bundles of collagen fibers are regularly arranged in parallel patterns that provide the tissue with great strength to withstand pulling along the axis of the fibers Irregular (be familiar with this tissue but no need to identify) Cartilage (know that the contorted is the main cell type of cartilage) – consists of a dense network of collagen fibers and elastic fibers firmly embedded in condition sulfate, a gel-like component of the ground substance. Cartilage can endure considerably more stress than loose and ensue connective tissues.
Hyaline Cartilage* – It affords flexibility and support and, at joints, reduces friction and absorbs shock; weakest of the three types of cartilage; most abundant Elastic Cartilage* – highly FL expiable and resilient; maintains the shape of certain structures, such as the external ear Fibrillating* – combines strength and rigidity and is the strongest of the three types of cartilage. One location of fibrillating is the intertribal discs Osseous tissue (know that the society is the main cell type of osseous tissue) Identify and state the function of skeletal muscle tissue.
The skeletal system supports soft tissues, protects delicate structures, and works with skeletal muscles to generate movement. Identify and state the functions of each of the following tissue components: Goblet cells ; modified columnar epithelial cells that secrete mucus at their apical surfaces Fibroblasts – found in connective tissues, secrete fibers and ground us absences of the extracurricular matrix Advocates – also called fat cells, are connective tissue cells that store triglycerides (fats).
EXAM HINT: Always give the complete name of a structure for full credit on the exam. For example, “simple exogamous” is NOT a complete name, but simple exogamous epithelium” is a complete name. Note: The two liquid connective tissues, blood and lymph, and onerous tissue will be covered later in the course when you study their related systems. The details of the structure of osseous tissue with be covered with the unit on the skeletal system. Learning Objectives for Chapter 5 THE INTERMARRY SYSTEM Man is the only animal that blushes, or needs to.
Mark Twain State the relative location, tissue type, and function of the hypodermic. – Deep to the dermis, consists of areola and adipose tissues, and serves as a storage depot for fat and contains large blood vessels that supply the skin. State the tissue type of the epidermis, the cells that produce keratin and melanin and the functions of keratin and melanin, and the functions of the Stratum basalt and Stratum coroner. State the most common cause of skin cancer and name and briefly describe the most common type of skin cancer and the most deadly type.
The most common types of skin cancer are exogamous cell carcinoma Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. State the tissue type of the dermis, explain why skin is able to stretch then return to its original shape, and state the function of epidermal ridges. The papillary region makes up about one-fifth of the thickness of the total dermis. It consists of areola connective tissue containing fine elastic fibers. The reticular region (reticule- entitle) is attached to the hypodermic and consists of dense irregular connective tissue containing bundles of collagen and some coarse elastic fibers.
The combination of collagen and elastic fibers in the reticular region provides the skin with strength, extensibility (ability to stretch), and elasticity (ability to return to its original shape after stretching) Epidermal ridges increase the surface area of the epidermis and thus increase the grip of the hand or foot by increasing friction. Name the different pigments in skin, explain how they contribute to skin color, and define freckles and moles. Pigments of skin Melanin – pale yellow to reddish-brown to black Carotene – yellow-orange pigment that gives carrots their color Hemoglobin – the oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells.
Freckles – melanin tends to accumulate in patches List the four components of the intermarry system. Skin hair nails glands State the functions of hair, and the papilla, matrix, and arrestor pill. Hair – hair on the head guards the scalp from injury and the sun’s rays. It also decreases heat loss from the scalp. Eyebrows and eyelashes protect the eyes from foreign particles matrix cells are responsible for the growth of existing hairs, and they produce new hairs when old hairs are shed.
Hair matrix cells also give rise to the cells of the internal root sheath Arrestor pill – Under physiological or emotional stress, such as cold or fright, autonomic nerve endings stimulate the arrestor pill muscles to contract, which pulls the hair shafts perpendicular to the skin surface (Goosebumps) Nails – Nails help us grasp and manipulate small objects, provide protection against trauma to the ands of the fingers and toes, and allow us to scratch various parts Of the body Describe the mechanism of skin wound repair.
Epidermal wound healing occurs following wounds that affect only the epidermis Healing of epidermal wounds begins as cells from the stratum basalt migrate to cover the wound until stopped by contact inhibition. Epidermal growth factor stimulates basal cells to divide and replace migrating cells. Deep wound healing occurs following wounds that penetrate the dermis Deep wounds, extending into the dermis or hypodermic, result in scar tissue, and they involve a more complex healing process that occurs in four phases: he inflammatory phase, migratory phase, proliferate phase, and maturation phase.
First-degree burns – affect only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin. The burn site is red, painful, dry, and with no blister Second degree burn – damages the dermis of the skin but doesn’t completely destroy it; it’s very painful but should heal fairly well given enough time.