18th Century Literature

1688-1689
When was the Glorious Revolution

Population doubles to more than 10 million
Power shifts the cities
Trade and industries multiplied
Great Britain became a literal nation
What were the results of the Act of Union?

This brought a lot of wealth
The gulf widened between rich and poor, and class conflicts turned people against each other
What were the results of British colonization?

the bonds of custom and tradition that had once united the British were broken, and now only money was respected
What were the results of all of the wealth from industrialization and trade not going to the working class?

antithesis
uses parallel structure to present a balanced contrast

Pope
Who uses antithesis in the development of themes regarding man?

Pope
Who wrote Essay of a Man?

He is clear that the bad things are good; his use of words help us see how he thinks humanity is all good
How does Pope’s use of heroic couplets help to achieve this purpose?

He sees humanity as good but bad; it does one thing, but also does the opposite of that
How is Pope’s view of humanity paradoxical?

This idea that we are both animal or beast and god is presented and that seems to be something that contrasts how can you be both animal and god, but when explained further we see the truth that we are a paradox we have animal and godlike qualities and we are always trying to make those two things work.

Ex: darkly wise, rudely grate, grate lord to all things yet prey to all (nature is out of our control and we are prey to her.

What is the main idea or theme, expressed in Essay on Man? How does the use of antithesis and paradox reflect this theme?

The poem itself contemplates what it means to be a man and the statue itself contemplates what it means to be me. He is naked like his animal state but at the same time he is thinking which shows his god like state. His posture but at the same time he is thinking. He is very strong which shows aggression (that emphasizes his animal part) but he still has god in him (he is equally intellectual as he is physical)
Below is Auguste Rodin’s sculpture, The Thinker. In what ways does the content of Pope’s poem relate to Rodin’s The Thinker?

Uses this idea to express that we are this mystery; humanity is an embodiment of contrasts which is what makes life difficult for us
With too much knowledge for the sceptic side,
With too much weakness for the stoic’s pride
In doubt to deem himself a god, or beast; – are we divine or an animal
In doubt his mind or body to prefer – do we favor our mind or body
It is confusing to be a human
Identify and explain each antithesis is this poem in The Essay on Man.

we are equally man and beast
What is the main idea of The Essay on Man?

heroic couplets
couplets that are written in iambic pentameter

can talk about use of antithesis as a way of developing the theme (through the use of antithesis the author develops the idea that a human occupies this middle ground in two contrasting streams) presents in parallel structure and that reinforces idea that we are equal; another way is he uses heroic couplets to reinforce theme (there are two couplets and human and god and both are necessary to make the whole)
How is the marriage of form and content presented in the essay on man?

Swift
Who wrote A Modest Proposal?

To raise children to be less greedy.
What is Swift’s Modest Proposal?

It will prevent involuntary abortions and women murdering their children.
What wrong does Swift claim this proposal will right?

1. Greatly lessen the number of Papists, with whom we are yearly over-run.
2. The poorer tenants will have something valuable of their own.
3. The nation’s stock will be thereby increased fifty thousand pounds per annum
4. The constant breeders will be rid of the charge of maintaining them after the first year.
5. This food will likewise be great custom to taverns
6. This will be a great inducement into marriage.
What are the six reasons for Swift’s proposal in A Modest Proposal?

verbal irony
discrepancy between what is said and what is meant

logos
a persuasive appeal to reason or logic

pathos
a persuasive appeal to the emotions

satire
What was A Modest Proposal?

irony
What is the most common literary device in A Modest Proposal?

try to persuade the reader
Why did Swift use irony in a Modest Proposal?

the title
What was the first example of irony in a Modest Proposal?

Papist
a derogatory term for Catholics

The English language was disordered and confused because of slang and problems in grammar. There was a lot of words and it kept flourishing, but not structure to keep it organized.
In what condition did Johnson find the English language when he began work?

He is the first to organize and establish an English dictionary on his own and people today get funding and have the internet. He has no other dictionary to build off of
What do the first five paragraphs reveal about how Johnson’s task differed from that of dictionary makers today?

He knew it wasn’t perfect but he put a lot of work into it. It was written without assistance
If your purpose were to find out more about Samuel Johnson’s feelings about writing his dictionary, what information in the last two paragraphs would be helpful?

Because English language is always changing and you cant have a perfect documentation of it.
Why, according to Johnson, can “no dictionary of the living tongue ever . . . be perfect”?

Because this is a new word and thing and it needs a very specific definition. The definition is more of like an extensive explanation
Why do you think electricity receives such a long definition?

He is exploring and observing words just like scientists.
In what ways is Johnson similar to the scientists whose work he eagerly discusses in this entry?

Anyone common who was low and uses foul language
What is Johnson’s definition of modern?

In today’s terms modern means like advance and new and Johnson’s definition means vulgar and common. Johnson’s meaning had a bad connotation, but today it has a good connotation. Johnson wrote his interpretation of words, but the words have evolutionizeed their meanings.
Compare and contrast Johnson’s definition of ‘modern’ with our definition of it today. Explain what different values each represents. What do these definitions reveal about Johnson?

It shows his feelings on his patron and shows he is bias.
What effect does Johnson’s word choice have on his definition of patron?

scientific, philosophical, and historic
What ideas did 18th century writers write about?

definitions are elegantly formed, copious amount of citations and quotations from a wide range of English literature, no help
What were the strengths of the Preface to the Dictionary?

opinions are visible in definitions, definitions are whimsical, today the definitions are horribly inaccurate
What were the weaknesses of the Preface to the Dictionary?

Yes, because someone can say they love you but completely diminish who you are and try to take advantage of you or control you, which is worse. (you can work for someone to respect you, but you can’t help the way you feel about someone)
Women are loved by their husbands but are not respected
She says there needs to be respect in love, but there is a disconnect here
Do you agree with Wollstonecraft that being respected is just as important as being loved? Explain.

For the flowers which are planted in too rich a soil, strength and usefulness are sacrificed to beauty; and the flaunting leaves, after having pleased a fastidious eye, fade, disregarded on the stalk, long before the season when they ought to have arrived at maturity.
Women currently, without these educational rights are planted in to rich a soil (like a flower that is putting to rich a soil and blooms to early, a women is only valued for her beauty withers more quickly because her strength is sacrificed for that beauty) the only value women have is their beauty, but beauty doesn’t last forever on the outside
men do, in order to get equality
In this first paragraph, what comparison does the author use to describe the current state of women?

a blooming that leads to nothing
What does Wollstonecraft mean by “barren blooming”?

A false system of education, gathered from the books written on this subject by men, who consider females rather as women than human creatures have been more anxious to make them alluring then affectionate wives
To what cause does Wollstonecraft attribute this “barren blooming”?

Women should be more like men in order to get equality (provide an image on what to strive for) do what men do, in order to get equality
What does Wollstonecraft mean when she writes that women should be more “masculine”?

Because if men want to act like animals, women should take advantage of that and bribe them (almost in a way) to get what they want first (she says if women are inferior by nature, why would education make us a threat in any way to men) it wouldn’t
According to Wollstonecraft, how do her society’s notions of femininity encourage women to be childish and manipulative?

Wollstonecraft
One of the 1st feminist writers and all feminist writing has been influenced by her story

vindication
act of providing justification or support for

why women should have equal rights to men (mainly in education)
What was Wollstonecraft justifying?

lexicography
the art of dictionary making

2 volumes
How many volumes was a Dictionary of the English language?

40,000
How many entries were in Dictionary of the English language?

114,000
How many citations were in Dictionary of the English language?

Johnson
Who wrote Dictionary of the English language?

Act of Union
This united England and Scotland and made them Great Britain.