17th Century British Literature

17th Century
defined by the culture war between the increasingly secuarlized Anglicans and the austere Puritans

King Charles
the tyrannical king of England who extorted his people monetarily and instituted a draft

Lord Cromwell
Leader of the House of Lords, a tyrannical austere Puritan. Called himself “Lord Protector”

1642
the date in which the Puritan Parliament closed the theaters and outlawed fancy clothes, public dancing, gambling, and other things

The Cavalier Poets
Sir John Suckling, Richard Lovelace, Robert Herrick

Sir John Suckling
the Cavalier poet that led 100 men in fancy armor to a suicide mission in which almost all of them died

Richard Lovelace
Cavalier poet who was imprisoned for defending the King in Parliament. Attractive, spokesman for loyalists.

Robert Herrick
Cavalier poet who had his parish stripped away because he had an association with the King

Carpe Diem
Latin phrase for “seize the day”

Cavalier Poems
poems wrote about frivolous and cheerful things, stuff like infatuation with a lover

The Metaphysical Poets
John Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell. All their writing was typically non-political or moderate.

John Donne
Metaphysical Poet that was the dean of St. Paul’s Cathedral in London

George Herbert
Metaphysical Poet who gave up successful life in Parliament for a small parish. Spokesman for Cambridge

Andrew Marvell
Metaphysical Poet who was the assistant to Paradise Lost author John Milton and then a moderate member of Parliament

Metaphysical Poems
poems written mostly on spiritual or philosophical topics; stylistically clunky, emotional, intellectual, used conceits, explored paradoxes

Conceit
a surprising, unusual, or even shocking metaphor. Often based on recently discovered scientific ideas that people now find unpoetic.

Paradox
self-contradictory truth in religion and philosophy
ex. Trinity

Baroque Paintings
paintings that tended to show intense drama with rich color and deeper contrasts than Renaissance Paintings. Paintings often provoked thought.

Puritan Authors
John Milton, John Bunyan

John Milton
Puritan Author who wrote “Paradise Lost”. He figured that if the greeks would write great tragedies about their gods, the Christians should do the same.

John Bunyan
Puritan author of “Pilgrims Progress”. He was a Separatist (puritan in theology, baptist in baptism and church leadership).

Paradise Lost
an epic that is considered by some as the greatest epic in the English language. It is about the fall of Satan and the Fall of Adam

Pilgrims Progress
an allegory that depicts the hardships a Christian faces on his journey through life and towards heaven

Holy Sonnet 14
written by John Donne, this is a Petrarchan Sonnet (2 quatrains and a sestet).

To Althea, from Prison
3 stanza and a conclusion poem written by Richard Lovelace

The Constant Lover
a poem written by Sir John Suckling that is about a lovers short infatuation with women

To the Virgins to Make Much of Time
a poem written by Robert Herrick that says virgins should get married early so they will not miss their chance

The Pulley
a poem written by George Herbert about the blessings God bestowed and did not bestow upon us